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E D U C A T I O N DAVID V . GLASS THOSE who have read Dicey's Lectures will remember that he has very little to say on the development of educational policy. He was concerned with the growth of collectivism—with that " combination of socialistic and democratic legislation" which, in his view, threatened " the gravest danger to the country." 1 Educational objectives as such, and their relation to the needs and structure of society, did not form part of his inquiry. Hence his brief com- ments on the then recent history of public elementary education were

9 Education As a group, the Japanese Americans are one of the most highly educated ethnic elements in the United States population (Kitano, 1976fo:l-2), both sexes enjoying a longer median period of education than blacks, whites, Chinese, Filipinos, and Native Americans (Schmid and Nobbe, 1965). Their educational excel- lence has been demonstrated qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Schwartz (1971), for instance, found that Japanese American pupils in Los Angeles scored much higher on performance than any other minority group and somewhat higher

XVI Education Formal education in Korea was largely in the hands of the Confu- cianists from the Three Kingdoms period until the twentieth cen- tury. The Buddhists played a secondary role in Korean education even when they dominated the government. The first school was established by royal command in Kogury5 in 372 to instruct sons of noblemen, and similar schools were founded later in Paekche and Silla. During the Silla and Koryo periods many Buddhist neo- phytes and Confucian students went to China to study. The kwagS 31- 7j , or Confucian civil

EDUCATION XIII J U S T AS T H E conquest of Central Asia was not to be accomplished by force of arms alone, neither were administrative and economic measures sufficient to consolidate what had been won. After achiev- ing their military objectives the Russians were confronted by a second line of defense—the will of the natives to retain their tradi- tional ways, their language, and their faith. The Russians faced a problem common to every power which has extended its dominion at the expense of others—the problem of reconciling the overrun population to

6 Education This part of the volume deals with "bread and butter" issues: education, occupation, and income. Clearly, the general societal forces affecting socioeconomic status have operated less favorably for blacks than for whites. For example, the income and occupational rewards obtained by blacks with a given level of schooling are far less than those reached by whites with comparable years of formal education (see, for example, Siegel, 1965; Blau and Duncan, 1967; Lieberson and Fuguitt, 1967). But more important, there is rather convincing evidence

4 Education The symposion, the choruses, in which Athenians danced and sang at religious festivals, the dramatic performances in the theatre, the law-courts, and the Assembly were, of course, part of Athenian education in the wider sense. In this chapter we are concerned with education in the narrower sense of formal in- struction. And we can narrow the subject still further. Most ancient discussions of education and most modern histories of Greek education see education as aimed at the attainment of arete, the kind of excellence which enables the

14 Education HE educational system was singled out for special attention by the reformers in Occupation Headquarters. It was believed that those features of the Japanese state—authoritarianism and militaristic nationalism—which were considered morally the most objectionable, and expediently the most dangerous in a Pacific neighbour, had their roots in the training given, and in the values and beliefs implanted by, the pre-war schools. In 1946 a large com- mittee of American educators was invited to make a lightning tour and report on the modifications

American Schools, Race, and the Paths of Good Citizenship