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69 3 DISPUTING ELECTIONS Richard H. Pildes The most incendiary issue any democratic system can confront might well be the selection of its chief executive when election results are disputed, obscure, and sharply divided. If we consider this issue from the perspective of democratic institutional design, we should anticipate that such situations are likely to arise eventually in any long-running democracy. In America, we have had disputed elections to the Senate and House regularly through- out our history and, on occasion, though not in the peculiar form of the

8. The 1948 Elections AT the beginning of 1948, Malan and the HNP could look forward to the general election which must come within the year with considerable confidence. Such signs as there had been had given every indication that the political tide was running strongly against Smuts and the United Party. Ten by-elections had occurred since the 1943 election and the HNP had contested six of these. The party had retained Wolmaransstad in 1947, as has been indicated, increasing its majority by 1,377 votes. Three seats had been won from Smuts

205 9 ELECTION DAY, 1920 The suffrage victory, according to Miss [Alice] Paul is “won but not paid for.” We should worry! But we do. The struggle for white supremacy in the South now confronts us.1 ORLANDO REPORTER-STAR the florida movement stood poised at the brink of a great vic- tory against one-party rule in the South. African Americans planned to use the ballot to challenge the fundamental elements of racial oppres- sion: poverty wages, debt peonage, failing schools, racial violence, and corrupt law enforcement. The movement was so successful that the NAACP

C H A P T E R V Elections and Prospects T H E ACID TEST of the effectiveness of party organization and the attractiveness of party policy is found in election returns. T h e ballot box is the pay-off for the politician. How, then, is the CCF doing in terms of votes? Can fore- casts be made from these data? N A T I O N A L E L E C T I O N S Four federal general elections have been held since the CCF came into being. In 1935, 1940, 1945, and 1949, voters across Canada have weighed the claims of the sev- eral parties and rendered their verdict. T h e

CHAPTER IV The Difficult Election P h i l Swing's eleventh district was a Republican district. In his first bid for election in 1920 Swing was unopposed by any Re- publican in the August primary. In 1922 his name alone appeared on both the Republican and Democratic tickets in the primary election. As a result, his August victory was tantamount to elec- tion, even though the November election was necessary to send him officially to Congress. California election laws had been changed under progressive Governor Hiram Johnson to prevent strong political party

FOURTEEN The 1948 Elections T H E ZIONIST LOBBY IN A C T I O N After his precipitate recognition of Israel in May, the president had promised Secretary of State Marshall not to intervene uni- laterally in the Palestine question. There are several indications that Truman did his best to honor this promise even as domes- tic pressures built up. Indeed, this time it would take a politi- cally inept statement by his rival for the presidency, governor of New York Thomas Dewey, to provoke Truman once more to countermand the actions of his secretary of state. In

the majority of moderate and DTS (Decline to State) voters who express their preference for Democratic candidates in almost every election and you have to ask, “Who the hell is left to vote for the Republicans?” ch a p t e r sev e n The Remarkable Election My mother had the good sense to name me after my father. Jerry Brown, on more than one occasion 9780520275638_PRINT.indd 136 28/01/13 4:51 PM The Remarkable Election / 137 Simply answered, Republicans are the party of older white voters from inland California, a base too small to win in 21st Century

C H A P T E R I I Presidential Elections Presidents are the only truly national elected officials in the American political system. This was true under the old system just as it is now, but presidential selection has been transformed in our time. The process through which we now select our chief executive is very different even from that which resulted in the election of John Kennedy in 1960. Beginning at the 1964 Democratic convention, events were set in mo- tion the full implications of which were not to become clear until at least the following decade

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X . T H E G E N E R A L E L E C T I O N S The general elections of May, 1960, represent the final phase of a process of political transfer which formally began in January of the same year at the Brussels Round Table Conference. Although the Round Table had once and for all settled the issue of a target date for inde- pendence, there was still considerable uncertainty as to which group would acquire a dominant position in the new political order—if only because the contestants were so numerous and their bases of support so unstable. The tensions arising