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ELEVEN Elementary Education in the Lower Yangtze Region in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Angela Ki Che Leung Since the pioneering work of Evelyn Rawski on elementary education in Ch'ing China, which gives a most valuable overview of the problem, little has been done to fur ther examine this important question.1 Alexander Woodside's rela- tive pessimism concerning popular literacy in relation to Rawski's obvious opti- mism is one of the few stimulating reactions to her work, though one must confess that it is yet too early to arrive at any final

Class, Race, and Family Life
British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century

, 1847 Day and Sunday Scholars, Wales and Monmouth, 1858 Voluntaryism in Wales and Monmouth, 1858 Government Expenditure on Elementary Education in Ireland, 1831-1870 Scottish Schools and Scholars, 1818 Religious Persuasions of Pupils in Scottish Schools, 1864 Proportions of Various Cohorts of Students in Agricultural and Industrial Mining Poor Law Unions, Wales, 1858 Pupil-Teachers by Gender, Selected Years Pupil-Teachers, 1861-1867 Numbers of Pupil-Teachers Examined, Passing, and Admitted to Training Colleges, 1861-1867 Salaries of Certificated Teachers, 1860

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. Legal Education in Ch' ing China / 292 Wejen Chang 10. Manchu Education / 340 Pamela Kyle Crossley PART 4 • THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF SCHOOLS AND C O M M U N I T Y E D U C A T I O N / 379 11. Elementary Education in the Lower Yangtze Region in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries / 381 Angela Ki Che Leung 12. Education and Empire in Southwest China: Ch 'en Hung-mou in Yunnan, 1733-38 William T.Rowe / 417 13. T h e Divorce between the Political Cen te r and Educational Creativity in Late Imperial China / 458 Alexander Woodside 14. Lung-men Academy

(versus regular education), said, A person who wants to be creative has no outlet in ele- mentary schools, except for the stupid bulletin boards, [laughs] [CW: And special ed?] In special ed, that's the freest area of all. I think men are less likely to . . . uh . . . The procedures of elementary edu- cation—regular elementary education—are so prescribed and they're so numerous and so complex that most men just do not abide by that. It would take a real . . . I don't know, a real special man to endure all of that. This is a good example of how respondents

of. 10-11, 31, 43-48; compulsory feature of, 11-12, 37-39; social functions of, 13, 37; sources of ideas about, 17-19; John Knox's scheme for, 1&-19; cleri- calism in, 22-23; national university plan for, 24-25; elective system of, 25, 28-29; s t a t e universities and, 29; court action on taxation for, 46-49; enroll- ment and, 50; child labor and, 53; for public service, 57-60. See also Elemen- tary education; Grammar schools; Scholarships; Standards Elective system in university, 25, 28-29 Elementary education, 29-40; lag in, 2; plan for, 3-5; local

cosmology, 227-28; in Han dynasty, 226, 249 n 17; and the idea of progress, 246-47; and Jesuits, 229; and politics, 225-26; reform of, 229-30; and ritual, 226. See also mathematics and mathematical sciences Ba Huyen Thanh Quan, 536 baksi (erudites), 343, 350, 351 banner education, 243, 340, 348-59, 526; and Chinese classical studies, 348; of commoners, 356-59; costs and fees, 358- 59,363; curriculum, 353,359, 360-65; elementary education, 352, 358; of the elite, 354-55,362; in the garrisons, 358, 362-63, 366; and military arts, 351, 354, 361; and private

; Giesen, Bernard; Munch, Richard; and Smelser, Neil J., eds. The Micro-Macro Link. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. Allen, Janet E. "Voluntaryism: A 'Laissez-Faire' Movement in Mid-Nineteenth Century Elementary Education." History of Education 10, no. 2 (June 1981): 111-24. Allsobrook, David 1. Schools for the Shires: The Reform of Middle-Class Edu- cation in Mid-Victorian England, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986. Allyn, Emily. Lords versus Commons: A Century of Conflict and Compromise, 1830-1930. New York: Century, 1931. Altholz, Josef L

C H A P T E R I General Considerations Elementary education in society commands our attention for many rea- sons, not the least of which is the ambivalence with which it is often regarded. On the one hand, it is valued positively as a medium for in- stilling into coming generations the cultural ideals, values, and idols that its host society treasures. It is also the medium for establishing the fun- damentals of rational thought—language and logic—that are believed to be essential conditions for intelligent participation in civilized so- ciety. On the other hand