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125 8 ENOLOGY IN SICILY During his travels through Sicily in the late eighteenth century, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe observed that the “oil and the wine are also good, but would be even better if prepared with greater care.”1 Sicilian winegrowers throughout history have maintained a deep connection to viticulture that has kept them in step with existing viticultural technologies. Their understanding of enology, however, lacked the sophistication found in mainland Italy and certainly in France and Germany. This defi ciency is consistent with Sicily

throughout history, reveals an incident in volume 1 of his Agrarian Sciences in the West that highlights the disparity between French and Italian perspectives on the style and stability of wine. He refers to a passage from Agostino Gallo’s Le dieci giornate della vera agricoltura, e piaceri della villa (Ten days of agriculture and the pleasures of the villa), written in the 1550s, that describes how French visitors to Milan, accustomed to pale, 9 ENOLOGY IN CHIANTI 162 • E N O L O G Y I N C H I A N T I clear, and delicate wines, found Italian wines so dark

Bold, Bright, and Dry
A Manifesto of Sorts
A Terroir Reader
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contents List of Maps • viii Acknowledgments • ix Preface • xi 1. The Origins of Sicilian Wine and Culture • 1 2. The Lost Opportunity: 1775 to 1950 • 21 3. The Modern Sicilian Wine Industry • 34 4. Perpetual Wine • 64 5. The Geography of Sicily • 72 6. Vine Varieties • 81 7. Viticulture in Sicily • 112 8. Enology in Sicily • 125 9. At the Heart of Sicily • 142 10. Understanding Sicilian Wine by Place: The Three Valleys • 150 11. Val di Mazara • 156 12. Val di Noto • 202 13. Val Demone • 230 14. The Garden-Vineyard • 262 Afterword • 271

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List of Illustrations • ix Acknowledgments • xi Preface • xiii 1. The Original Chianti • 1 2. The Evolution of Chianti through Bettino Ricasoli: The 1600s to the 1870s • 21 3. The Birth of Chianti Classico and External Chianti: The 1870s to 1945 • 35 4. Chianti Classico Enters the Global Market: 1945 to the Present • 59 5. Chianti’s Hidden Roads • 96 6. The Geography of Chianti Classico • 105 7. The Secret of Sangiovese • 117 8. Viticulture in Chianti • 132 9. Enology in Chianti • 161 10. Chianti Classico Winegrowers by Subzone • 189

| References . 1958. “Methods of Determining Field Maturity of Grapes.” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 9:37–40. . 1976. Wines: Their Sensory Evaluation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. Amerine, M. A., and A. J. Winkler. 1944. “Composition and Quality of Musts and Wines of California Grapes.” Hilgardia 15:493–673. . 1963. “California Wine Grapes.” California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 794. Anderson, D. 2006. Monks and Monasteries in the Middle Ages. World Alma- nac Library of the Middle Ages. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library. Anderson, M. M., et al