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Mexican Americans, Immigration, and Identity
Cultural Expressions from the Fourth World
Business and Welfare Among Chinese, Japanese, and Blacks

101 Mexican Americans’ structural assimilation and the intergenerational decline of ethnic traditions and customs within the family do not lead to a purely symbolic form of ethnic identity, as canonical theories of assimilation predict. Instead, immigrant replenishment provides a sun that staves off the twilight of ethnicity among later-generation Mexican Americans. The large Mexican-immigrant and second-generation pop- ulations have made Mexican ethnicity a prominent part of the social structure in these two cities, and ethnicity is a more accessible and

Epilogue Modernity and Ethnicity 197 During the early modern period, status ordered social groups within the core polity, and the concept of civilization situated Japan in East Asia. In the modern period, the two combined to constitute the contours of Japanese national identity and, with it, Japanese ethnicity. Japanese national identity did not emerge in its contemporary form during the Tokugawa period, or even during the opening decade or two of the Meiji era, for it goes without saying that Japan’s intensive engagement with the rest of the world since the 1850

c h a p t e r 1 Questions of Ethnicity In 1985, at the height of Margaret Thatcher’s reign in the United King- dom, Norman Tebbitt, a conservative member of Parliament, publicly queried South Asian loyalty to the British nation, because these minori- ties did not cheer for the English teams in international cricket games against India and Pakistan.1 The infamous “cricket test” of allegiance for South Asians continues to have social and political signiWcance. In May 2001, the headlines again questioned why Asians were not supporting England in cricket. There was

2 ethnicity as Language Among those who research ethnic groups in the southwest, there is no one who does not take H. R. Davies’ taxonomy as his starting point. —Ding Su, 1941 in the closing weeks of April 1954, a small group of scholars in beijing began to dis- cuss the herculean task that awaited them in Yunnan. e Classification team would have less than six months to prosecute a coordinated, multisite investigation and pro- duce a series of definitive taxonomic recommendations about the province’s minor- ity groups. eir findings would result in a complete

Chapter 7 SOCIALISM AND ETHNICITY* Charles Leinenweber The failure of the American Socialist Party to develop, in its early years, into a viable working-class movement is as much due to its own shortcomings as to the material conditions of American capitalist society. From the time of its formation in 1901 to the time of its disastrous split in 1919, the party faced several critical political decisions. One of the most important of these was how to relate to the vast numbers of "new" immigrant workers in the United States—southern and eastern Europeans