social reform; it was modifi ed, but never transformed beyond recogni-
tion, by the local dialect the Iranian modernists spoke. As Frank Diköt-
ter’s research on medicine and sexuality in republican China illustrates,
this situation did not only characterize Iran.3 Around the globe, (semi)-
colonial modernist reformers found ways to focus on specifi c aspects of
a particular science and adapt such aspects to their own concerns about
modern life. But the political and sociocultural dominance of colonizing
Western countries forced them to accept
The world science system, global rankings, and the WCU movement on the basis
of the global multiversity template all tend to facilitate convergence. Kishore Mah-
All the better universities know that they have to have strong science and engineer-
ing faculties to get any kind of global recognition. Equally importantly, the language
of science and engineering is a globallanguage. The laws of physics equally apply
to all corners. Hence the global spread of education in science and technology is
another major driving force in the
from which to hone his craft and form his opinions, Vũ Tro. ng Phu. ng
developed his similarly acute talents and views as a lower-class, untraveled, half-
educated, opium-addicted, colonized subject from a remote outpost of France ’s
second-rate empire. This contrast, together with the unyielding advance of English
as a globallanguage, helps to explain the gulf between Orwell’s towering interna-
tional reputation and Vũ Tro. ng Phu. ng’s obscurity outside Vietnam.
In addition to his prodigious literary gifts and tragic early death, Vũ Tro. ng
Coser, Lewis, Charles Kadushin, and Walter Powell. Books: The Culture and
Commerce of Publishing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Crary, Jonathan. Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern
Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999.
Cressy, David. “Books as Totems in Seventeenth- Century En gland and New
En gland.” Journal of Library History 21, no. 1 (1986): 92–106.
Crystal, David. En glish as a GlobalLanguage. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2003.
Danzger, M. Herbert. Returning to Tradition: The Contemporary Revival of
globallanguages presendy spoken are diminishing by
several hundred each decade. Eighty percent of two hundred extant tribal
languages north of the Rio Grande are no longer spoken fluendy by anyone
under fifty, according to Michael Krauss, director of the Alaska Native Lan-
guage Center. Native Language Network, Fall 1997, reports that if the
trend continues, only twenty indigenous languages will survive into the
middle of the next century. Up to ninety percent of the world's six thou-
sand languages may go moribund in the next century, only six hundred
globallanguage of best practices
for fi nancing, managing, and running the business, and for those seeking
additional training, the meetings are increasingly complemented by an edu-
cational component, including a series of classes on leasing strategies, design
and construction, and any other hot topic of the day, such as the use of social
networking. Th e ICSC also holds the Global John T. Riordan School for
Professional Development, operating since the 1980s but later named for
ICSC’s second president and lifetime trustee and one of the most passionate
onward, to save Africans from their
alleged tyranny toward each other. The actual impetus and mechanisms of
European conquest were of course more particular than that. Colonial in-
vasions entailed the concentration of military power in small spaces, the
movement of colonial armies onward, and a strikingly unimpressive colo-
nial capacity to exercise power systematically and routinely over the terri-
tories under European rule. A globalizinglanguage stood alongside a struc-
ture of domination and exploitation that was lumpy to an extreme.
This is little more than a
. Voices from the Straw Mat: Toward and Ethnography of
Korean Story Singing. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Park, Chang-Won. 2005. “Korea.” In The Encyclopedia of Cremation, edited
by D. Davies and L. Mates. Aldershot, Hants, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Park, Chung-shin. 2003. Protestantism and Politics in Korea. Seattle: Univer-
sity of Washington Press.
Park, Joseph Sung-Yul. 2009. The Local Construction of a GlobalLanguage:
Ideologies of English in South Korea. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Park, Soon-Ham. 1975. “On Special Uses of Kinship Terms in Korea.” Korea
skills. After all, if culture
helps to shape communication, that means that communication isn’t innate.
We each had to learn how to communicate in our native language, and we
can learn to do it in a second language—and in globallanguages, too, when
technology enables us to reach out to new communication partners.
It’s essential to learn more about culture and communication. We’re in
an age of massive migrations of groups and individuals. Research and his-
tory show that despite the proliferation of McDonalds, the infl uence of hip-
hop art forms, the fact that