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British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century

elementary school, 4, 12; of grammar school, 4, 14-15; of college and university, 23-24, 52-53: of acad- emy, 44-45; of high school, 51 De Tocqueville, Alexis, 57 Declaration of Independence, 1, 3 Du Pont de Nemours, Pierre, 24 Dwight, Edmund, 38 Education: over-all plan of, 2, 3, 24-25; financing, 2-9 passim, 30-36. 47-49, 53, 54-55. 56; legislation for, 3-6, 14-16, 26, 29-31, 32-33, 54-55; political and social ideology and, 3, 12, 54-62; merit selection and, 3, 4-8, 15-16, 17-19, 20- 21, 42, 54-64; and preservation of lib- erty, 8-9, 10, 19, 22; local control

ix figures 1. Oxnard Grammar School, circa 1908 14 2. West-side residences, Oxnard, circa 1920s 17 3. East-side residences and outhouses off Fift h Street, Oxnard, circa 1940s 17 4. Th eodore Roosevelt School, fourth-grade Mexican class, Oxnard, circa 1934 65 5. Woodrow Wilson School, Oxnard, circa 1939 67 6. Woodrow Wilson School, seventh-grade Mexican class, Oxnard, circa 1937 68 7. Th eodore Roosevelt School, White class, Oxnard, circa 1938 71 8. Oxnard High School graduation, 1939 76 9. Antonia Arguelles DiLiello, graduation

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vii illustrations Harmony and Charles Ives, ca. 1946 Frontispiece Undated memo (from the 1930s or later) in Ives’s hand 3 18 July 1886, to George Ives 8 Ives with a Hopkins Grammar School teammate, 1893 14 1 April 1894, to George Ives 25 22 November 1907, to Harmony Twichell 43 Charles and Harmony at Elk Lake, New York, ca. 1909 46 10 March 1921, sketch for Ives to Walter Goldstein 59 3 January 1930, sketch for Ives to John C. Griggs 76 Edith and Charles Ives, 1924 79 Ca. 22 July 1929, sketch for Ives to Julian Myrick 104–5 Ca. October 1936, sketch for Ives to

afterwards —in 1880, up to the age of ten; in 1893, up to the age of eleven; and not until 1918 up to a minimum age of fourteen.® Substantial provision of secondary education began even later. The numbers of pupils in the boys' " public schools " had never been large, and by the early nineteenth century those schools had ceased to draw, to any appreciable extent, upon the general population. Nor did the endowed grammar schools cover more than a small fraction of children. Even after the work of the Endowed School Commis- sioners, by 1895, the total number of

a model republic, socially and politically different from any society in the past. T o that end he envisaged a new educational pattern composed of several parts.2 First of all, free elementary schools were to be provided for all future citizens. Second, free education of a more advanced nature was to be provided for a selected group of poor boys through a series of residential grammar schools which were also to serve the well- to-do on a tuition basis. The selective process was to proceed in stages over a period of years. Third, a university education was

177 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Wade C. Sherbrooke grew up on Staten Island, before the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge connected it to the rest of New York City (1940s and 1950s). Here, where he played as a child, he found hardwood de- ciduous woodlands with red- backed salamanders, ponds visited by painted and snap- ping turtles, blackberry thick- ets visited by box turtles, and marshes filled with birds and mammals. Today, the area is covered by houses filled with the accoutrements of modern society, as well as city parks. While in grammar school, raising and racing pigeons

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Catalog Card Number: 73-84385 Printed in the United States of America To Satsuki If boys enter grammar school at six, high school at thir- teen, and graduate at nineteen, after which from their twentieth year, they spend a few years as soldiers, in the end all will become soldiers and no one will be without education. I n due course, the nation will become a great civil and military university. YAMAGATA AJUTOMO, 1873, from Roger F. Hackett, Yamagala Aritomo in the Rise of Modern Japan, 18)8-1932 (Cambridge, 1971), p. 65. . . . if we think toward the future

are forced to leave school for the opportunities they are to miss. Yet these middle 190 The Radical Will years of what used to be called the "grammar school" are now left not only unmotivated, but without any genuine educational function. Instead of being prophetic of the future they merely drag along the relics of the past. Some schools, it is true, have timidly brought down the beginning of high school studies into the lower grades, but in general the "grammar school" merely continues the interests of the primary school on substantially the same lines

CHAPTER XI Equipment: organization: discipline School work in ancient times began at a very early hour. Rather in the way that the old English grammar schools might be instructed by statute to commence 'at sixe of the clocke', or at six in summer and seven in winter, [1] Roman schoolmasters, by a generally accepted tradition, awaited their pupils at the crack of dawn. Martial says that even before cock-crow boys were on their way to school, and would stop on the way to break their fast at a baker's shop. [2] On dark winter mornings, the 'pedagogue' would