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124 Edmund Burke was Irish. All interpreters agree on this, although almost everything else about Burke’s origins, not to mention the ideological and political commitments they might be supposed to entail, has been the subject of intense scholarly debate. Most of Burke’s biographers maintain that he was born in Dublin of a mixed marriage between a lifelong Protestant father (Richard Burke) and a mother from a long-standing Catholic family (Mary Nagle). However, some have opined that Burke was born in County Cork and spent an early formative period among

Chapter VI Irish associationalism The first distinctly Irish societies in the city were founded in 1852. The first Irish celebration in the city had taken place on 17 March 1851 for St Patrick's Day, but the participants do not seem to have wanted to create a permanent institution from the event, possibly because too many regarded themselves as transient.1 On 3 February 1852, however, a group of Irishmen came together to form the Hibernian Society, with Dr R. K. Nuttall as president.2 By March 1852 the group had attracted some fifty to sixty members to

145 pa r t 4 Ireland edward carson, for mer crow n prosecutor—and defense attorney for Lord Queensberry in Oscar Wilde’s libel suit against him—is a fi ercely determined combatant, as brilliant as he is pugnacious, his powerful oratory a match for his intelligence and his presence on a stage commanding enough to silence a crowd of thousands. As of 1910, Carson is the undisputed leader of Ulster, the northeastern-most province of Ireland and the only one with a Protestant rather than Catholic majority—though the margin is slim and there are sizeable

FIGURE 1 Map of Britain and Ireland showing the main islands men- tioned in the text. MacKinnon, K., G. Hatta, H. Halim, and A. Mangalik. 1996. The ecology of Kalimantan. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions. Morley, R. J. 2000. Origin and evolution of tropical rain forests. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons. Muller, K. 1996. Borneo: journey into the tropical rainforest. Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books (NTC Publishing Group). Rautner, M., M. Hardiono, and R. J. Alfred. 2005. Borneo: Treasure Island at risk. Status of forest, wildlife and related threats on the Island

193 in the political economy of the atlantic, two islands stand out as mountains of capitalist accumulation. Demographically, one, Ireland (soon to lose its political identity in the United Kingdom), exported labor, while the other, San Domingue (soon to become Haiti), imported labor. Geologically, these islands had different formations—one being part of the Eurasian continental shelf (a continental island) and the other originating from volcanic upheavals at the bottom of the Atlantic (an oceanic island). Technically, one was formed by orogenesis and the

Chapter Four Irish Labor Reform The pattern of Irish participation in the labor movement was in some ways like that of Anglo-American workers. Both groups tended to reject revolutionary politics in favor of labor reform. Irish work- ers often became politically active through Knights of Labor as- semblies, which demanded better wages, shorter hours, better working conditions, and union recognition, not the restructuring of the economic and political systems. In the 1880s, nearly all Irish activists supported the reformist, Anglo-American-led Trades and

Chapter 7 "The Broken Lights of Irish Myth" Early Irish Literature in Irish Popular Culture VLADIMIR: And yet. . . (pause) . . . how is it—this is not boring you I hope—how is it that of the four Evange- lists only one speaks of a thief being saved. The four of them were there—or thereabouts—and only one speaks of a thief being saved. . . . One out of four. Of the other three two don't mention any thieves at all and the third says that both of them abused him. . . . ESTRAGON: Well? They don't agree and that's all there is to it. VLADIMIR: But all four

15 The Irish Patriots Escape The escape of MacManus in the summer of 1851 set a pattern for the remaining six patriots who had been convicted of trea- son and exiled to Tasmania. Four of them, sentenced in 1848 to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, were men of means. Being "gentlemen" they were not transported like 'tween-deck crimi- nals on a convict ship. Instead, they sailed from the British Isles aboard naval vessels and were treated as befitted their class. Assigned a cabin to themselves under the poop deck, they received good food and wine and had an