Edmund Burke was Irish. All interpreters agree on this, although
almost everything else about Burke’s origins, not to mention the ideological
and political commitments they might be supposed to entail, has been the
subject of intense scholarly debate. Most of Burke’s biographers maintain
that he was born in Dublin of a mixed marriage between a lifelong Protestant
father (Richard Burke) and a mother from a long-standing Catholic family
(Mary Nagle). However, some have opined that Burke was born in County
Cork and spent an early formative period among
The first distinctly Irish societies in the city were founded in
1852. The first Irish celebration in the city had taken place on
17 March 1851 for St Patrick's Day, but the participants do not
seem to have wanted to create a permanent institution from the
event, possibly because too many regarded themselves as
transient.1 On 3 February 1852, however, a group of Irishmen
came together to form the Hibernian Society, with Dr R. K.
Nuttall as president.2 By March 1852 the group had attracted
some fifty to sixty members to
pa r t 4
edward carson, for mer crow n prosecutor—and defense
attorney for Lord Queensberry in Oscar Wilde’s libel suit against him—is a
fi ercely determined combatant, as brilliant as he is pugnacious, his powerful
oratory a match for his intelligence and his presence on a stage commanding
enough to silence a crowd of thousands. As of 1910, Carson is the undisputed
leader of Ulster, the northeastern-most province of Ireland and the only one
with a Protestant rather than Catholic majority—though the margin is slim
and there are sizeable
FIGURE 1 Map of Britain and Ireland showing the main islands men-
tioned in the text.
MacKinnon, K., G. Hatta, H. Halim, and A. Mangalik. 1996. The ecology
of Kalimantan. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions.
Morley, R. J. 2000. Origin and evolution of tropical rain forests. Chichester,
UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Muller, K. 1996. Borneo: journey into the tropical rainforest. Lincolnwood,
IL: Passport Books (NTC Publishing Group).
Rautner, M., M. Hardiono, and R. J. Alfred. 2005. Borneo: Treasure
Island at risk. Status of forest, wildlife and related threats on the Island
in the political economy of the atlantic, two islands stand
out as mountains of capitalist accumulation. Demographically, one, Ireland
(soon to lose its political identity in the United Kingdom), exported labor,
while the other, San Domingue (soon to become Haiti), imported labor.
Geologically, these islands had different formations—one being part of the
Eurasian continental shelf (a continental island) and the other originating
from volcanic upheavals at the bottom of the Atlantic (an oceanic island).
Technically, one was formed by orogenesis and the
Irish Labor Reform
The pattern of Irish participation in the labor movement was in
some ways like that of Anglo-American workers. Both groups tended
to reject revolutionary politics in favor of labor reform. Irish work-
ers often became politically active through Knights of Labor as-
semblies, which demanded better wages, shorter hours, better
working conditions, and union recognition, not the restructuring of
the economic and political systems. In the 1880s, nearly all Irish
activists supported the reformist, Anglo-American-led Trades
"The Broken Lights
of Irish Myth"
Early Irish Literature in Irish Popular Culture
VLADIMIR: And yet. . . (pause) . . . how is it—this is
not boring you I hope—how is it that of the four Evange-
lists only one speaks of a thief being saved. The four of
them were there—or thereabouts—and only one speaks of
a thief being saved. . . . One out of four. Of the other
three two don't mention any thieves at all and the third
says that both of them abused him. . . .
ESTRAGON: Well? They don't agree and that's all there is
VLADIMIR: But all four
The Irish Patriots Escape
The escape of MacManus in the summer of 1851 set a pattern
for the remaining six patriots who had been convicted of trea-
son and exiled to Tasmania. Four of them, sentenced in 1848 to
be hanged, drawn, and quartered, were men of means. Being
"gentlemen" they were not transported like 'tween-deck crimi-
nals on a convict ship. Instead, they sailed from the British Isles
aboard naval vessels and were treated as befitted their class.
Assigned a cabin to themselves under the poop deck, they
received good food and wine and had an