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incorporating my own specialty: Japanese cinema. Because the English-language textbooks I used in that course—Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen’s Film Theory and Criticism, Bill Nichols’s Movies and Methods, Dudley Andrew’s The Major Film Theories, Toby Miller and Robert Stam’s A Companion to Film Theory, and Marc Furstenau’s The Film Theory Reader—cover only theoretical texts written in European lan- guages (including Russian), I was only able to assign some well-known Japanese films by Ozu Yasujirō, Kurosawa Akira, and Mizoguchi Kenji to be analyzed by means of those

24 NIPPON REALISM In an essay published in 1985, Satō Tadao coined the term “Nippon realism” (Nip- pon riarizumu) to designate the emergence of what he considered to be a uniquely Japanese school of realist filmmaking in the mid- to late 1930s.1 Obviously, Satō was motivated to offer a counterargument to Burch’s prior discussion of the anti- realist character of Japanese cinema, and he strategically mobilized the already established fame of Ozu and Mizoguchi to advocate the high artistic standard of Nippon realism. However, Satō’s deliberate use of the

Articulations of Cinema, Nation, and Spectatorship, 1895-1925
Japanese Film Theory and Realism in a Global Frame

List of Illustrations ix Acknowledgments xi Introduction: Realism, Film Theory, Japanese Cinema 1 1. Naturalism and the Modernization of Japanese Cinema 24 2. The Machine Aesthetic and Proletarian Realism 52 3. Literary Adaptation and Textual Realism 77 4. Documentary Film and Epistemological Realism 103 5. Neglected Traditions of Bergsonism and Phenomenology 133 Epilogue: Hanada Kiyoteru and Postwar Debates 166 Notes 185 Selected Bibliography 209 Index 225 contents

, 1996. Gerow-Pages.indb 289 2/24/10 2:46 PM 290 / Selected Bibliography ———. Encyclopedia of Early Cinema. London: Routledge, 2005. ———, ed. Silent Film. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and the Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983. Anderson, Joseph L. “Spoken Silents in the Japanese Cinema; or, Talking to Pictures: Essaying the Katsuben, Contextualizing the Texts.” In Reframing Japanese Cinema, edited by Arthur Noletti Jr. and David Desser, 259–311. Bloomington

genetics. But for all their effort to create a pure cinema, reformers and cen- sors did not themselves always form an untainted bloc. My research on the discursive definition of cinema in Japan focused on an influential group of critics and films that, precisely because it aimed for purity, gives the impression of assuming a monolithic position in Japanese cinema history. Gerow-Pages.indb 222 2/24/10 2:46 PM Conclusion / 223 But the Pure Film Movement and its conception of cinema suffered from cracks and contradictions that one must understand in order to

209 JOURNALS Kinema Record (1913–1917) Kinema junpō (Movie Times, 1919–1940, 1946–1950, 1950–) Eiga hyōron (Film Criticism, 1926–1940, 1941–1943, 1944–1975) Shinkō geijutsu / Shinkō geijutsu kenkyū (New Art / Studies of New Art, 1929–1931) Yibutsuron kenkyū (Studies of Materialism, 1932–1938) Eiga shūdan (Film Collective, 1935–1938) Eiga sōzō (Film Creation, 1936–1937) Nihon eiga (Japanese Cinema, 1936–1945) Bunka eiga (Culture Film, 1938–1940, 1941–1943) Bunka eiga kenkyū (Studies of Culture Film, 1943–1940) Eiga kikan (Film Quarterly, 1948–1950) B O OKS AND 7. Ibid., 26. 8. David Bordwell, “A Cinema of Flourishes: Japanese Decorative Classi- cism of the Prewar Era,” in Reframing Japanese Cinema: Authorship, Genre, History, ed. Arthur Noletti Jr. and David Desser (Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1992), 344. 9. David Bordwell, Ozu and the Poetics of Cinema (Princeton, NJ: Prince- ton University Press, 1988), 146. This book is also available through the Michi- gan Classics Online series at the University of Michigan’s Center for Japanese Studies, www

1 Introduction a discursive history of japanese cinema Takada Tamotsu, a reporter for the late-teens Japanese film magazine Katsudoµ no sekai (Movie World) once gave an account of the first press screening for Sei no kagayaki (The Glow of Life), Kaeriyama Norimasa’s revolutionary 1918 film often cited as marking a major historical shift in film form in Japan. According to Takada’s recollection, Yamamoto Yoshi- tarom, business director of the Tennenshoku Katsudom Shashin Kabushiki Kaisha—a leading 1910s film company called Tenkatsu for short—intro- duced the