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Communicating Effectively in the New Global Office

, 83-84, 86-87, 90, 91, 102, 136; Japanese language fluency of, 220-221, 222-224; Kibei compared with, 218, 219; as laborers, 174, 207; leadership assumed by, 103; lists of, 261-262; as middleman minority, 36,110-112, 125-126,132, 172, 182, 225, 258; mobUity of , 145, 157-162, 172, 179; newspapers and, 204; occupation patterns of , 5-7, 36, 109, 112-121, 137-138, 139 ,143 ,144 , Index / 289 146, 148-149, 157, 162-163, 165, 166, 167-170, 171, 174-175, 178-179; occupation patterns of, current, 121-124, 125-126, 135, 154, 156, 161-162, 163, 164, 167

beyond their reach; without English-language fluency, they experi- enced unfair and discriminatory treatment in public. Unless they could overcome these barriers, their dreams would surely be stalled, postponed for many generations, if not completely dashed. Foreign-born Latinos understood that to make it in America they had to adapt, and incorporate into their communities, which they indeed do, frequently socializing with neighbors and fellow churchgoers, enlisting in the military, in many cases marrying non-Latinos, and eventually thinking of themselves as

parallel to teachers and teaching in another area of the academy, foreign language acquisition. THE TRIALS OF TRANSMISSION Few would disagree with the ideas that the most effective means of acquir- ing fluency in a language system, whether spoken or musical, is to grow up with it as your Wrst language, and that the ideal method by which to achieve foreign language fluency is through prolonged and preferably total immer- sion. The more completely one is forced to operate and interact exclusively in a foreign spoken or musical language environment (that is, live that lan

drama, 18 Dusek.J . , 164 Dweck.C. W., 170,175 Ecob, R. , 136 Edinburgh Reading Test (ERT) , 4 Edmonds, R. R. , 1,258,260,261 Education Act (1944), 31,265 Education Act (1986), 280 Education Act (1987), 281 Educational Priority factors, 181; and school effectiveness, 232 Education Reform Bill, 31,266 educational outcomes, cognitive and non-cognitive, 4-5 effectiveness, search for, 1-8; see also school effectiveness Eggleston, S. J . , 117,168 England, primary class size, 274 English children, see ESWI English language, fluency in sample pupils, 93

- spread cultural stereotype. Why not? The answer lies not only in indi- vidual human capital, such as language ability or education, but in racial categorization. Once they acquire basic language fluency, Russians and other recent immigrants from Eastern Europe are able to quickly assimi- late as whites—not as “honorary whites” or as a “model minority” but simply as whites. Even with heavily accented English, this racial status then gives them greater ability to enter into the U.S. mainstream and gain access to wider employment opportunities.14 In contrast, Koreans

out how to support each other, communicat- ing their needs and working together to solve their problems. In the end, their experiences brought them together instead of tearing them apart. “ I AM AFRAID TO ARGUE”: GENDERING IMMIGRATION POLICY’S ROLE IN ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS The inequality and stress in mixed-status relationships can lay the foundation for undocumented partners to experience abuse. Previous research suggests that having an immigrant background can exacerbate abuse or make it more diffi- cult to seek help because of limited language fluency

.e., disaggregating the category Latina/o), gender, language fluency (see Rumberger and Larson 1998), and whether academic achievement (represented by completion of high school or grade reports) is disaggregated by vocational and college-prep curriculums. Studies usually explore only one or two of these variables. Moreover, the use of different measurements makes cross-study comparisons difficult. To my knowledge there is no parallel literature that explores in an extensive way the causes of white working-class upward mobility. But for accounts of the subjec - tive experience of

, especially in the short run. Overall, immigrant families are at greater risk of poverty than nonimmigrant families. Yet over time and subsequent generations, labor market barriers become less important.69 Immigrants become more similar to the native-born population in Causes of Poverty 85 terms of their employment, earnings, English-language fluency, fertility, and poverty the longer they have been in the United States. Some stud- ies show, however, that an increasing number and proportion of immi- grants have been arriving with very low levels of skills, contributing to

’m a student and I speak English. Being able to be raised here since I was five years old, and know English, and speak it without an accent.” As with lighter phenotype, Iliana’s English language fluency, lack of an accent, and student status 266 • R E L A T I O N A L F R A M E W O R K S I N C O N T E M P O R A R Y P O L I C Y distances her from stereotypes of unacculturated immigrants and allows her to pass as U.S.-born and thus not potentially undocumented. Others men- tioned their style of dress as signaling their acculturation. Similarly, eight of the