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British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century

i l lustrat ions 1. Goujian tastes Fuchai’s stool 6 2. Graphic depiction of “sleeping on brushwood and tasting gall” 8 3. Graphic depiction of “sleeping on brushwood and tasting gall” 10 4. The Maiden of Yue teaching swordsmanship to a Yue soldier 17 5. Wu Zixu whipping the corpse of King Ping of Chu 32 6. Han Xin crawling between the butcher’s legs 34 7. Patriotic heroes venerated in the early 1930s 42 8. Patriotic heroes venerated in the early 1930s 43 9. The pain of national humiliation 46 10. Goujian as portrayed in a mass education primer lesson on

, was largely ignored, and in 1838 he left India to join the abolitionist move- ment in the United States and Britain. The interest and investment in primary schooling should not be con- fused with any real commitment to mass education. Bengali- language schooling, always in tension with En glish education, never received enough private or public funding to make it truly expansive. The colonial state remained, until 1854, wholly committed to a policy of elite En glish schooling. But Adam’s report refl ected an important facet of nineteenth- century Christian

in the School of Management at Boston College. ZELDA F. GAMSON is a professor in the Center for the Study of Higher Education and the Residential College at the University of Michigan. Her publications include Academic Values and Mass Education (with David Riesman and Joseph Gusfield) and, most recently, Liberating Education (Jossey-Bass). She is also the author of numerous articles on higher education. EDWARD s. GREENBERG is a professor of political science, and director, Research Program on Political and Economic Change, Institute of Behavioral Science

value of wage labor (versus capital), workers’ rights, workers’ housing, mutual aid associations, mass education, and generally the ques- tion of how to establish more just societies that would defuse the time bomb of class warfare became quasi-universal, transnational, and global. a multiplicity of com- munication channels circulated these discussions throughout various parts of the world. To explore some of the main communication channels, i suggest thinking of four interconnected units that played a central role in the articulation of radical leftist ideas and

Page 263 alfonso xii (King of spain), 180n47 algeria, 24–25, 150–51, 228n45 alliance israélite Universelle, 148, 232n88 alliance of Women for Peace, 224n209 anarchism, 115; anti-imperialism and, 24–26; dissemination of, 11–12; Egyptian indige- nous, 129–31; emergence of, as political ideology, 18; ferrer affair and, 60; freema- sons and, 23–24; global radical moment and, 18–21; immigrant anarchists, 29; indigeniza- tion of, 163–64, 168; individual rebellion in, 31, 125; international police force to combat, 219n113; islam and, 186n39; mass education and, 21


a few years, he and his colleagues, working closely with Dr. James Yen and the Mass Education Move- ment that had come earlier to Dingxian, demonstrated dramatically successful techniques, including methods for involving villagers in improving their own health condition. The major principles they established then, described in these memoirs, have proved to be remarkably durable over the past half century and a remarkable testament to Dr. Chen and his colleagues. One can only wish that the world community had been quicker to accept these scientific

Russian Revolution (where schooling for workers was an element of Bolshevik strategy) and upon contemporary experiments within China.5 At the time, Y. C. James Yen’s Mass Education Movement, Huang Yanpei’s Vocational Education Campaign, and Liang Shumin’s Rural Reconstruction Movement were part of a growing number of high- profile initiatives, intended to foster popular literacy and provide practi- cal training, which had captured the imaginations of many concerned young Chinese intellectuals, including a number of future Communists.6 Equally significant for the

Weekly (Peking) 4 (1929): 35- "We Shall Soon Practice State Medicine." The Binying Weekly (Pe- king) 6 (1929): 34. "The Tinghsien (Dingxian) Experiment in Medical Relief and Health Protection. Chinese Mass Education Movement (n.p.), 1933. "A Practical Survey of Rural Health." Chinese Medical Journal (n.v.) (1933): 680-688. "Sickness: An Important Cause of Absenteeism in Rural Schools." Chinese Medical Journal (n.v.) (1933): 594-596. "Scientific Medicine as Applied in Tinghsien." Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 1 1 (1933): 370-378. "Public Health in Rural

anyone or that it is necessarily ennobling, nor that leisure should properly be filled with art or education. What does need clarification is the currently assumed dichotomy of nasty "eli t ism" and virtuous mass education in many disciplines. Once again we are confronted with the importance of words and their meanings. If we speak of mass education favorably and then juxtapose as its opposite "el i t ism," we have made a choice harmful to understanding. Rather than elitist I would urge the word "aristocratic" in such a jux- taposition. Then our pejorative