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Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century
Centrist Liberalism Triumphant, 1789–1914
Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600–1750
The Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 1730s–1840s

C O D A Indigenous Wisdom in the Modern World We are living today only because the generations before us—our ancestors— provided for us by the manner of their responsible living. SIMON ORTIZ , Acoma (1998) The word tending, as in the title Tending the Wild, is meant to encapsulate the essence of the relationship that the indigenous people of California had with the natural world in pre-Columbian times. It also suggests the time- less wisdom inherent in this relationship, wisdom that we sorely need to- day. Tend means “to have the care of; watch over; look after

BIRTH OF THE MODERN WORLD In the past 250 years, the Modern Revolution has transformed the world. Tables 13.1 and 13.2 and figure 13.1 offer some comparisons of industrial output over most of this era. And the first thing they suggest is that global industrial output has increased by almost 100 times. The figures are, of course, very rough-and-ready: the raw statistics are unreliable, as are defini- tions of "industrial potential," and not all countries are included. Never- theless, the general conclusions we can draw from these tables are very clear, and

Preface: On Writing abou t the Modern World-System is is the fourth volume in a series whose O rst volume was published in 1974. e overall work was conceived as a multivolume analysis of the historical and structural development of the modern world-system. Each volume was designed to stand by itself but was also intended simultaneously to be part of the singular larger work. is poses some problems both for the author and for the reader. I think it might be useful to the reader for me to spell out how I have approached these dii culties, not all of

calculation. Despite the keystone cen- trality of energy to modern human life, most people think little about it. These forms of energy shrink to invisibility, which makes us vulner- able to the problems they pose. Exploring the pathways to fi re, food, and subsequently the big four brings the keystone of modern life into focus. chapter 1 The Invisible Keystone of the Modern World 2 | Chapter 1 the first energy transition: homo embraces fire Evolutionary processes—long before the appearance of primates— established food as the energy foundation for all animals, but

I PRECEDENT, SURVIVAL, METAMORPHOSIS: CLASSICAL INFLUENCES IN THE MODERN WORLD <m> WHAT WE HOPEFULLY LABEL the 'classical heritage* is, ulti-mately, a phenomenon as elusive as Lewis Carroll's Snark -liable to turn into a Boojum when cornered - and as mutable as Proteus, the original Old Man of the Sea. About the one general point of agreement is that by 'the classics' we mean the Graeco- Roman tradition: and even that has been challenged, on occasion, by hopeful Sinologists or students of the Upanishads whose cultural allegiances outstrip their