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two German Naturalism even as the sounds of parsifal, at once modern and regressive, echoed through the Bayreuth Festspielhaus in 1882, newer trends were on the rise in Germany. Naturalism was the first self-conscious, programmatic move- ment of German modernism. It had its beginnings around 1880, primarily in two urban centers, Berlin and Munich, and began to decline by the mid- 1890s. German naturalism drew much of its inspiration from France, specifically from the realism of Courbet, Flaubert, and Zola. Ibsen also be- came an influential figure. Although music

2 Hollywood Naturalism The basic backbone of all stage or screen performance is action, be it dramatic, comedy, hokum, but it must be action. Thus “Wild Geese” is a little more exciting than one of Mencken’s “Prejudices” scenarized. . . . Tiffany-Stahl’s ambassadorial entry into the Roxy is by no means a handicapping try. Very likely “Wild Geese” will do business here for the Roxy is just the type house a picture of this nature will please. The sophisticated downtown film fan that contributes to the Roxy’s staggering grosses will rather fancy the deft treatment

C H A P T E R T W O Naturalism and Interpretation Nietzsche's Conception of Epistemology and Ontology We laugh as soon as we encounter the juxtaposition of "man and world," separated by the sublime presumption of the little word "and"! Nietzsche, The Gay Science §346 z.i T H E " D E A T H O F G O D " A N D T H E N A T U R A L I S T P R O J E C T In the previous chapter, I argued that Nietzsche's notorious claim, " G o d is dead," condenses an elaborate genealogy of Western thought, a se- quence of worldviews stretching from metaphysics and theology

117 s e v e n · The Misguided Attack on Methodological Naturalism keith b. miller INTRODUCTION Recent efforts by antievolutionary advocates have focused not so much on science content but on changing the defi nition of science itself. These efforts are expres- sions of widely held misunderstandings of the nature and limitations of science. Science is a methodology that provides a limited, but very fruitful, way of knowing about the natural world. This method works only if science confi nes itself to the investigation of natural entities and forces

2 The Scenic Illusion: Shakespeare and Naturalism The dramatist assigns his play to a scene, designated by language or by objects in space, without troubling to think how radically he has shifted the ground and con- ditions of our perception of the world. In a stroke he has altered our customary orientation to time and space. Consider the opening of any play. What we call the exposition is really the surreptitious planting of an embryo future in a reported past and the sealing off of time in an inevitable space. For a beginning, or a past, can only be

8 Critical Naturalism and Political Theory L-ontemporary political theorists are locked in an unwinnable battle be- tween foundationalist and contextualist orthodoxies. Yet the preceding analysis has indicated the possibility of a third way and supplied many of the implements with which to begin opening it up. Now it is time to con- front this task more systematically. My account of a third way is rooted in the pragmatist philosophical tradition I rescued from Rorty, and it takes full account of the interpretive dimensions of human experience that Wal- zer

83 Chapter 4 Evolutionary Enchantment and Denatured Religious Naturalism A religion, old or new, that stressed the magnifi cence of the Universe as revealed by modern science might be able to draw forth reserves of reverence and awe hardly tapped by the conventional faiths. Sooner or later, such a religion will emerge. —carl sagan, pale blue dot In chapters 4–6, I turn to the variety of ways in which scientifi c accounts of the natural world are being consecrated and reenchanted to serve as a new global myth. Recall that these narratives go by a variety of

American Literature at the Turn of the Century

the same time appreciating Mizoguchi’s innovative use of the long take as manifesting the latter’s 1 Naturalism and the Modernization of Japanese Cinema Naturalism and Modernization 25 indictment of injustices among socially marginalized figures. Moreover, Satō tries to enhance the credibility of his undeniably “auteurist” approach by quoting the following words of Yoda Yoshikata, a screenwriter known for his long-term col- laboration with Mizoguchi: “Mizoguchi always maintained a strongly realist point of view, which is usually called naturalism. One can

2 Literature: Shimamura Högetsu's Naturalism and Its Liberal Critics The naturalist movement, flourishing for only a few years after the Russo-Japanese War (1904—05), marked the birth of a modern Japanese literature. The complex movement was united and unambiguous on certain points. The new literature was to be modern, which meant conversant with the latest Western styles; it was to be a source of national pride, though not the vehicle of chauvinism. It was to be Japanese, though the naturalists were profoundly ambivalent about their own aesthetic