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47 chapter 2 Green New Deal “This is our generation’s Sputnik moment. Two years ago, I said that we needed to reach a level of research and development we haven’t seen since the height of the space race. In a few weeks, I will be sending a budget to Congress that helps us meet that goal. We’ll invest in biomedical research, information technology, and especially clean-energy technology—an investment that will strengthen our security, protect our planet and create countless new jobs for our people.” —U.S. President Barack Obama, State of the Union

and spread the idea that government intervention was needed to alleviate the misery caused by the unpredictable swings of a capitalist economy and the manipulations of markets by powerful cap- italists. These ideas, in diluted form, helped fuel Progressive Era reforms, from Theodore Roosevelt’s Square Deal of 1904 to Woodrow Wilson’s New Freedom of 1913. 18 CHAPT ER 2 THE NEW DEAL 020 Fletcher Ch1-4 (7-38) 2/28/08 10:36 AM Page 18 During the 1912 presidential campaign, for example, the platforms of the Socialist, Progressive, and Democratic Parties contained

N I N E Adjudicating the New Deal We are stricken by no plague of locusts. Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933 The country was well into the Great Depression when the new judges took their seats on the court. The election of Franklin Roosevelt brought a "new deal" to the American people; it also brought a new direction to the Ninth Circuit. With the appointment of Francis Garrecht in 1933, the Democrats held a majority on the court for the first time in its history. More Democrats joined the court in the ensuing four years, until Curtis Wilbur was left as the

10 Race and New Deal Liberalism On the morning after the 1936 election—and the reelection of both FDR and Gus Hawkins—two hundred women congregated in the basement of the Second Baptist Church. As the New Age reported, they were mostly “women of African and Mexican descent,” mostly “mothers of dependent children.” They were employees of a Works Progress Administration sewing project that operated out of Second Baptist, and they were “jubilant over the Roosevelt re-election.” When they arrived at work that day, they “cheered for the President and sang patriotic

CHAPTER SIX The Promise of the New Deal hen Franklin D. Roosevelt took office on March 4, 1933, proclaiming that the nation had "nothing to fear but fear itself" and promising direct, vigorous action, the banking crisis had eclipsed both the relief and agricultural prob- lems. Roosevelt responded immediately, declaring a national bank holi- day, and calling Congress into special session to deal with the banking collapse. Originally, Roosevelt intended to convene Congress for only a few days to pass emergency banking legislation, but the cooperative mood of the

Chapter 4 The New Deal in Electrical Modernization Public Enframing We stand on the concrete pad for a new house we are to build. We survey the landscape. We might be in New Jersey, and view the straggling border of a green field against a pine wood. We might be in southern California, and view the golden dust and crackling grass of the heated summer being plotted for a vast tract. Surveyor's flags dance in the breeze, signaling an abstract geometry soon to be scraped and pushed into reality by graders and bulldozers. We enact an American ritual. The

, to provoke meaningful collective bargaining, and to protest by striking and picketing. Although for decades denied most American workers, these rights had been enacted into federal law two years earlier, via the Wagner Act, a legislative centerpiece of the Roosevelt administration’s “Second” New Deal that was held constitu- tional by the U.S. Supreme Court only weeks before the strike began in the landmark decision NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel.3 But as the men who 4 • I N T R O D U C T I O N ran the steel companies saw things, the letter of the law could

Chapter 5 The New Deal Saves the Home, 1933-1949 Local Property in Crisis The Great Depression began the transformation of the American home. Over two decades, seismic changes rolled under the foundations of American do- mesticity: economic collapse, the New Deal, threats from socialism and com- munism in America and from fascism in Europe, the Second World War and federal economic controls, the postwar political struggle over rent control, sub- sidized housing, urban redevelopment, racial desegregation. These challenges to the American system did not

America J CHAPTER XIX FEARLESSNESS AND FEAR: THE NEW DEAL AND AFTER Excitement Amid Despair FOR American intellectuals, the Great Depression was more than a time of travail and anguish. It was a moment of opportunity, a chance to break down the door of estrangement. Business leaders and established political spokesmen were pathetically uncertain, and the mass of Americans were willing to listen to any who seemed to offer a way out. Opponents might sneer at Roosevelt's "Brain Trust"; the electorate did not. To be sure, confused Americans also gave their