. Clearwater, and Christopher P. McKay (New York: Springer-
Verlag, 1991), pp. 105-14.
31. Peter Suedfeld, "Groups in Isolation and Confinement: Environments
and Experiences," in From Antarctica to Outer Space: Life in Isolation and
P. McKay (New York, Springer-Verlag, 1991), pp. 135-46.
32. D. T. Andersen, C. P. McKay, R. A. Wharton Jr., and J. D. Rummell,
"An Antarctic Research Outpost as a Model for PlanetaryExploration," jour-
nal of the British Interplanetary Society 43 (1990): 499-504.
33. Christopher P. McKay, "Antarctica: Lessons for Mars," in
raft down the Grand Canyon.
All were boyhood heroes of Bowman’s. Insofar as most of the world’s places
were integrated into the world map by the beginning of the twentieth cen-
tury, the frenzy for planetaryexploration began to subside, yet the tradition
of exploring faraway places survived. When Bowman set off for South
America in 1907, he saw himself as a “geographical explorer.”2
This was no simple refusal of the end of an era but an assertion that there
remained unexplored or barely explored worlds to conquer, an attempted re-
definition of exploration in a
(left), in ig62, the two men discussed Calvin's research.
Professor-at-Large Charles H. Townes was awarded the Nobel
Prize in physics in 1964 for his role in the invention of the
maser and laser. He came to the University in 1967 and is
based on the Berkeley campus in the Department of Physics.
The new Space Sciences Laboratory, a two-million-dollar home for scientists and advanced students
working in such fields as biophysics, atmospheric physics, cosmic-ray study, geomagnetics, and lunar
and planetaryexplorations. The building, completed in 1966 with
Press, Princeton, N.J., 303
pp. Eugene M. Shoemaker (1928–1997), a geologist
studying impacts, was a leading figure in NASA’s pro-
gram of planetaryexploration.
62. The idea that Earth is bombarded from space
has a long pedigree; the British astronomer William
Herschel (1738–1822) suggested collisions of celestial
objects with Earth two centuries ago. More recently,
the Canadian geologist Digby McLaren and the
marine geologist Robert Dietz of the Navy Electronics
Lab in San Diego proposed that large impact struc-
tures left a mark on our planet. Dietz, in the 1970s