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2 0 2 Structures of Social Power POLITICAL PARTIES T H E HISTORY OF POLITICAL PARTIES in I r a n is s h o r t i n d e e d . N o t long after the assembly of the second majlis the supporters of the government in that body were called "moderates," and the minority called themselves "democrats." These terms did not refer to parties, but rather to the shifting groups of deputies supporting or opposing government measures. Some deputies did become inveterate members of the minority and tried to build popular reputations for liberalism, constitutionalism

in Iran

IX POLITICAL PARTIES HE POLITICAL PARTY EMERGED in answer to the need for an institution that would enable the public to par- ticipate actively in constitutional government. The hostility of absolutist regimes to political associations has already been dis- cussed, and constitutions in ignoring the matter of how voters would organize to select candidates for office, agree upon policies, and assure continuing relation between the governing and the gov- erned did nothing to promote parties. Yet all groups except the supporters of extreme absolutism came to

C H A P T E R V I I I Political Parties American local and state political parties, which dominated the political party system for over a century, have lost most of their ability to influ- ence national politics while the national parties are becoming much more influential. The distinction between the decentralized old parties and the new national ones may seem to be academic hairsplitting, but the old lo- cal and state parties were organized around the material rewards avail- able in politics, whereas the new national parties are organized around

VII POLITICAL PARTIES PARTY POLITICS BETWEEN WORLD WAR I AND WORLD WAR II While sporadic efforts were being made to protest against injustice, to revo- lutionize or revitalize the approach of Africans to the problems of public affairs, there developed in the early 1920's groups that sought to obtain power and to run the government. These political parties came into being in response to the provision in the Constitution of 1922 for the election of four representatives, three for Lagos and one for Calabar, to the Legislative Council.1 Herbert Macaulay

Chapter 14 PLURALISM AND POLITICAL PARTIES* Norman Thomas No third party [in America] has ever grown like an oak from an acorn. The Republican Party is no exception. It became a second party in its first national election, it was the Whig Party which died. Why has there been this general failure of "third" parties? The reasons are largely political and are to be found in America's history, and its Constitution. I have sometimes told English friends that had we had a centralized parliamentary government rather than a federal presidential government, we

C H A P T E R V i l i Polish Political Parties BY MALBONE W. GRAHAM ÏTWEEN THE DISAPPEARANCE of the ancient Polish State and the establishment of the Republic of | Poland at the close of the First World War, ' there was no common forum for the meeting and merging of Polish political opinion. In default of an institu- tional medium through which the currents of political life could normally flow, public opinion in the partitioned lands became, in the course of more than a century, extraordinarily divided. This was in part attributable to the different

CHAPTER TWO American Ambivalence About Political Parties An epigraph for this book might well have been taken from the l^te Dag Hammarskjold, who knew only too well the gap between the lofty ideas of humanity and the actual behavior of people. "The road to holiness," he observed, "necessarily passes through the world of action."1 His observation is fitting because in the long and convol- uted epic that is the story of party reform in America, one leitmotiv appears more often than any other. This is the tendency of Americans to deal uneasily with the

Party-Front) DİSK Devrimci İşçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of Revolutionary Trade Unions) HB Halk Birliği (Peoples Brigade) HK Halk Kurtuluş (Peoples Liberation) HS Halk Sesi (journal) (Peoples Voice) HY Halk Yolu (People’s Path) İGD Ileri Genclik Derneği (Progressive Youth Association) İLD İlerici Lise Derneği (Progressive High School Students Association) Kurtuluş Liberation MHP Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi (Nationalist Movement Party) list of p olitical parties , organizations, and groups list of political parties and groups xiii MSP Milli

PART III Political Forces and Political Parties In contrast to western Europe and the United States, political life in Latin America is characterized by multiplicity and the heterogeneous character of its political forces. If simplicity of structure prevails in completely archaic agrarian societies, this is not true of developing societies which are changing by imitating more advanced cultures. Latin American societies in which the cultural advances and lags are especially pro- nounced are certainly not simple. Because of the dualistic nature of the

4 Political parties: structures and policies William Tordoff and Ian Scott Classifications of African political parties have usually been based on the values and goals endorsed by party leaders, their perceptions of the roles performed by their parties and the nature of the poli- tical system within which the party operates. Coleman and Rosberg, for example, using these criteria, make the distinction between the revolutionary centralising party, defined in terms of its ideological, egalitarian, monolithic and coercive characteristics, and the prag- matic