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- year period. In February 1947, Gen. MacArthur forcibly suppressed a planned gen- eral strike of four million government workers, in line with the rise of the Second Epilogue Hanada Kiyoteru and Postwar Debates Epilogue 167 Red Scare (also known as “McCarthyism”) in the United States. And when the Korean War broke out in 1950, the occupation government ordered the establish- ment of the National Police Reserve (keisatsu yobitai) with a light infantry force of seventy-five thousand. This ultimately led to the remilitarization of Japan, as the organization

Cinema, Military Psychiatry, and the Aftermath of War
Japanese Film Theory and Realism in a Global Frame
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List of Illustrations ix Acknowledgments xi Introduction: Realism, Film Theory, Japanese Cinema 1 1. Naturalism and the Modernization of Japanese Cinema 24 2. The Machine Aesthetic and Proletarian Realism 52 3. Literary Adaptation and Textual Realism 77 4. Documentary Film and Epistemological Realism 103 5. Neglected Traditions of Bergsonism and Phenomenology 133 Epilogue: Hanada Kiyoteru and Postwar Debates 166 Notes 185 Selected Bibliography 209 Index 225 contents

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surely central to the postwar debate over the shape of the French economy and society. It occurred to me that an investigation of worktime might serve as a prism through which to look at this critical transformation of labor in a new light. The issue was not merely the reduction of working hours but the reallocation of time, a shift that affected life beyond employment as much as the experience of work. I hoped to find in this quest for time a way of linking the radi- calism of labor history before World War I with the reformism that fol- lowed and of relating

representations of racers as model workers, de- scribing them instead as slave laborers. These commentators exploited the Tour's much-celebrated extreme nature to formulate a broad critique of the exploitation of labor which, they argued, characterized the increasingly ra- tionalized factories of early-twentieth-century France. Finally, chapter 6 ex- amines postwar debates about the Tour as work, relates them to the racers' longstanding practice of doping, and explores the implications of that prac- tice for their heroic image as France's géants de la route. 6 I N T R O D U

nature to formulate a broad critique of the exploitation of labor which, they argued, characterized the increasingly ra- tionalized factories of early-twentieth-century France. Finally, chapter 6 ex- amines postwar debates about the Tour as work, relates them to the racers’ longstanding practice of doping, and explores the implications of that prac- tice for their heroic image as France’s géants de la route. 6 i n t r o d u c t i o n

behaviors with the psychological health and character of the nation. As sex became viewed as a key to civic as well as personal identity, social scientists and mental health profession- als argued that specific forms of sexual behavior either contributed to or endangered the health of the individual, one’s familial and social relation- ships, and the body politic and were thus constitutive of the national char- acter. As a result, the trope of character was crucial to postwar debates about sexuality and national identity, often serving as a bridge connecting the two.17

to be exchanged for that of several days' work in another. Neoclassical trade theory broke away from the labor theory of value through the introduction of the concept of "reciprocal demand" in which the market for the products determines their price. Both variants were to reappear in the postwar debates initiated by ECLA.24 The concept of unequal exchange had been widely employed in Central Europe during the 1920s to justify planned industrialization, although the need for tariff protection in order to "catch up" with technologically more advanced

longer context of modern Japanese history is critical as well. Kathleen Uno shows that Japanese officials and sympathetic elites formulated a conservative ideal of "good wife, wise mother" in the late nineteenth century that exhibited remarkable staying power throughout the postwar years. Postwar challenges to this ideal were anticipated in the feminist critiques of the 1910s and 1920s. At the same time, many parties to postwar debate on gender issues drew on or transformed concepts of a special role for good wives and wise mothers rather than rejecting them entirely