.8 Partisanship, Ideology, and Past Voting Behavior of Tea Party
Supporters, 2010 / 229
6.1 Obama/Joker socialism poster / 165
8.1 Average Conservatism by Decade of Republican
Identifi ers / 199
8.2 Average Feeling Thermometer Rating of Democratic PresidentialCandidate by Decade among Republican Identifi ers / 200
6480017_FM0001.indd viii 16/05/12 7:30 AM
individual as Wang Hai- ling, but a
mainland Chinese as Wang Hailing. Because romanization practices in Tai-
wan do not consistently observe the standards of one par tic u lar system, I do
my best to follow typical conventions when rendering Taiwanese names in
Mandarin. For both Taiwanese and mainland Chinese, I follow local naming
practices and put the surname fi rst, followed by the personal name.
I employ pseudonyms throughout the book to protect individual identi-
ties. Th e only exceptions are cases where I refer to elected politicians (legisla-
presidential elections were adopted. Both changes had the ef-
fect of strengthening presidentialcandidates and weakening those in the
political system with claims on them, particularly party leaders.
At the same time, television and increased use of advertising, survey
research, direct mail, and other mass marketing devices were changing
the nature of presidential campaigning. Taken together, the new cam-
paign techniques and the new election rules made it inevitable that presi-
dential candidates would focus their efforts at persuasion on the voters,
of the House and the
Senate.4 If no candidate wins a majority of the electoral votes, then the
House, voting by state, chooses a president from among the top three can-
didates. Originally, the presidentialcandidate with the second highest
number of electoral votes became the vice president. The development of
political parties made that system problematic, as the election of 1800 dem-
onstrated. The Twelfth Amendment separated the ballots for president and
THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE 373
vice president. The Senate chooses the vice president from the top two
wood Fights Back, 1947.
42. Myrna Loy and Cary Grant on the set of The Bachelor and the
Bobby-Soxer (RKO, 1947).
43. Cary Grant and Myrna Loy in a promotional still forMr. Blandings
Builds His Dream House (RKO, 1948).
44. Myrna Loy campaigns for Democratic presidentialcandidate
Adlai Stevenson, 1956.
45. Montgomery Clift and Myrna Loy during the filming of Lonely-
hearts (United Artists, 1958).
46. Myrna Loy and Paul Newman in From the Terrace (20th Century–
47. Myrna Loy and cast in Barefoot in the Park.
48. Myrna Loy and Henry Fonda in Summer Solstice