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Appendix B: Structure of the Russian School System 1. Varieties of Primary Education Urban parish school Year of (prikhodskoe Study uchilishche) District school (iuezdnoe uchilishche) Municipal Primary school Two-class (1872) school (zemstvo, Church primary school Literacy (gorodskoe uchilishche) parish, ministerial) Higher Elementary School ( V N U ) (zemstvo, school ministerial) (Church) SOURCE: Modified f rom N. V. Chekhov's original graph, found in Tipy russkoi shkoly v ikh istoricheskom razvitii (Moscow, 1923), 42. 489 *—I O N T

CHAPTER XIII Primary education: reading, writing and reckoning The circumstances under which Roman children learned to read and write, and the extent of the linguistic knowledge which they acquired at an early age, varied considerably according to their family background. Many received their lessons at home, when the father, mother or other relative had the leisure and ability to teach them, or when, as often happened, their 'pedagogue' was competent to do so. Others, whose home circumstances were less favourable, were sent to school. The chief

British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century
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113 X The problem of accommodation 115 XI Equipment organization; discipline 126 XII The hazards of a fee-paying system; municipal and State appointments 146 Part Three The Standard Teaching Programme 163 XIII Primary education: reading, writing and reckoning XIV The Grammatical syllabus 189 (I) The elements of metre and the parts of speech XV The Grammatical syllabus (continued) 198 (II) Correctness in speech and writing XVI Study of the poets 212 (I) Reading aloud and reciting XVII Study of the poets (continued) 227 (II) From reading to commentary

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by Subject 487 Appendix B: Structure of the Russian School System 1. Varieties of Primary Education 489 2. The Russian School System in 1914 490 Notes 491 Bibliography 591 Index 629

P ILLITERATE ADULTS AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL 1990: 25% 2004: 19% Educational Inequalities 6 R The greatest benefit of education is that it empowers individuals with the essential tool of knowledge with which to enhance their lives with greater freedom and awareness. In April 2000, at a meeting in Dakar, Senegal, 164 countries adopted six goals related to education: literacy, universal primary education, early childhood care and education, the quality of that education, youth and adult learning, and gender equality. These goals provide a checklist for

developing the fundamentals of social conscious- ness and criticism. Equality and inequality, moreover—like the family and religion—are not neutral issues in any society. In the context of this general assessment, primary education in Brit- ain in the nineteenth century is a subject of special interest. In the upper classes, much of it occurred in the family; in the lower classes, as we shall see, it both complemented and conflicted with family necessities and priorities. In addition, primary education was a resource that was claimed—unsuccessfully, as it turned out—by the

enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to one of the fol- lowing levels of education. • Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills, along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music. • Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that begins at the primary level and aims at laying the foundations for life- long learning and human development by offering more subject- or skill

across sex and/or gender? 50 6. Does the constitution explicitly protect women’s right to equality in marriage in all aspects including entering, exiting, and within marriage? 55 7. Does the constitution explicitly protect noncitizens’ general right to educa- tion or specific right to primary education? 77 8. Does the constitution take an explicit approach to protecting noncitizens’ right to equality at work or decent working conditions? 81 9. Does the constitution explicitly guarantee an approach to noncitizens’ right to health? 86 xii List of

ongoing historical research I wish to base my explorations on historical research, not necessarily because I am convinced that historically based sociological explanations are really that diff erent from any other explanations, but rather because I am currently engaged in an eff ort to generate a systematic understanding and explanation of certain historical processes. For the past two years I have been residing part time once again in the British Museum Library, in an eff ort to generate a sociological account of the vicissitudes of British primary education in