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152 C H A P T E R S I X Between Anti-Black Racism and Islamophobia Sure, I know I got it made while the masses of black people are catchin’ hell, but as long as they ain’t free, I ain’t free. Muhammad Ali, 1975 The guy from immigration . . . asked me, “What is your religion?”. . . And I said, “I’m a Muslim.” Muhammad Ali, Jr., 2017 The greatest Muslim American was black. In fact, the man many will remember as the most iconic American in history was both Muslim and black. His reign in the hearts of Americans of every shade and in the hearts of billions

p a r t o n e · FROM VULGAR TO POLITE RACISM c h a p t e r o n e · Right to Kill, Right to Make Live Koreans as Japanese Go get slaughtered and we promise you a long and pleasant life. michel foucault, “The Political Technology of Individuals” (1988) TOTAL WAR AND THE POPULATION PROBLEM In its official history of thirty years of Japanese rule in Korea, the Government- General of Korea noted that a fundamental transformation in the state ’s under- standing of “population” had taken place since the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Previously, the

1 1. The Nature of Medical Racism The Origins and Consequences of Medical Racism introduction The idea that discredited (and even disgraceful) ideas about racial differ- ences might play a role in medical diagnosis and treatment is a possibility that some doctors fi nd profoundly disturbing. The racially biased treat- ment of patients would appear to be a grievous violation of medical eth- ics and a direct threat to the dignity of the profession. Yet, in the course of the last two decades, the medical literature has published hundreds of peer-reviewed studies

c h a p t e r 6 Becoming British Asian Intergenerational Negotiations of Racism 137 Negotiations and markers of diVerence help to separate culture from “eth- nicity” (Punjabi) and “community” (Hindu). Thus far, I have drawn on familiar terms for understanding “ethnic minorities,” such as language, religion, kinship, and alliance. Continuing my focus on the negotiation of culture cum ethnicity cum identity cum community, I want to now dis- cuss racism as experienced in everyday lives. Race is a seemingly primor- dial factor of identity, culture, community, and

1 Of Fish and Water Perspectives on Racism and Privilege There ain’t no white man in this room that will change places with me—and I’m rich. That’s how good it is to be white. There’s a one-legged busboy in here right now that’s going: “I don’t want to change. I’m gonna ride this white thing out and see where it takes me.” Chris Rock 34 A ccording to a well-known philosophical maxim, the last thing a fishnotices is the water. Things that are unproblematic seem natural and tend to go unnoticed. Fish take the water they swim in for granted, just as European

AIDS and Racism: Accusation in the Center Homosexuals in New Ymk take vacations in Haiti, and we suspect that this may be an epidemic Haitian virus that was brattght back to the homosexual population in the United States. Dr. Bruce Chabner, National Cancer Institute, December 1, 1982 There were W A D S in the US2 until the illegal criminal Haitian dogs came. Anonymous, sent to Haitian community agency in Miami (postmarked May 1983) Maybe they will kill me in Haiti. Thegovernment doesn't forget anything there. But this is worse. This is no country fw

7 Racism, Risk, and the New Color of Dirty Jobs Lee D. Baker Springtime in North Carolina is stunning. In mid-April 2006, I was driving west on I-40 between Raleigh and Durham. It was bright, sunny, and sixty-nine degrees. Various work crews were out along the highway—picking up litter, doing con- struction, mowing medians, and planting flowers. Of all the states in the Union, North Carolina is second only to Texas in miles of state-maintained highways— each mile is well maintained. As traffic slowed along a narrow strip near Research Triangle Park, I noticed

ve features of social experience within the community that may contribute to these increased rates: social inequality, racism, social fragmentation, increasingly fragile cultural identity, and community “expressed emotion.” Johanne met Violet during her long-term ethno- graphic study of the African-Caribbean British community. When I fi rst met Violet, a single mother of Jamaican origins in her late forties, she had been hospitalized for several months at a psychiatric hospital in North London. It was her third hospitalization since she had been diagnosed with

3 IS THE BOAT FULL? X E N O P H O B I A , R A C I S M , A N D V I O L E N C E SOLINGEN, 1993. The aftermath of a fatal arson attack by four local youth that killed five members of the Turkish Genç family. The charred ruins of their house, set off against a bucolic landscape, came to epitomize the bru- tality of racist attacks in the newly unified Germany. The banner hanging outside the second floor reads, “We demand a general strike now! Ger- mans and foreigners together against racism.” I S T H E B O AT F U L L ? 107 ALTHOUGH THE YEARS directly following

EPILOGUE: SCHALLMAYER, ARYAN RACISM, AND THE LOGIC OF GERMAN EUGENICS On October 4, 1919, after many years of suffering from various heart ailments and a severe case of asthma, the sixty-two-year- old Schallmayer succumbed to a heart attack. At the time of his death, in addition to his major prizewinning work and two other lesser known treatises, the intellectual father of the German eu- genics movement had published forty-two articles in some of Germany's most prestigious medical, social science, and eugenics journals. His unquestionable intellectual