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How the Right Has Rewritten the Gospels
The City and Its Histories
Gender, Visuality, and Experience in the Early Chinese Periodical Press
The Political Vision of Vu Trong Phung
The Kuomintang, 1912–1924

1 Introduction Republican China Once the 1911 Revolution overthrew the Qing dynasty, monarchy was gone for good in China; revolutionaries drew a line that became a great and defining gulf. In 1915 President Yuan Shikai, who had inherited the revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen’s brief and provisional presidency, tried to make himself emperor. Although Yuan had in his possession formi- dable political skills and resources, he failed miserably in attempting to pick up where the child-emperor Puyi left off at his forced abdication on February 12, 1912. Yuan’s failure

demo- graphics, the writing women discussed in the second part of this chapter. Th e Republican Ladies who wrote for and were directly targeted by the journal, the funü in the title Funü shibao, were emblems of the achievements and aspira- tions of the early Republic.1 Funü shibao’s objective was to use these women’s writ- ings and photographs to advance its particular conception of Republicanism. In making Republican Ladies visible, it would make visibility respectable. In assert- ing the virtue of publicness, it would ultimately call more Republican Ladies into

CHAPTER 7 Republican Rome 308 The Roman Republic is generally defined as the period from the expulsion of the Etruscan kings (509 b.c.e.) to the Battle of Philippi in 42 b.c.e., which ended the hopes of those who wished to restore republican government af- ter the assassination of Julius Caesar. The Etruscans, early Rome’s powerful neighbors to the north, were known to have an interest in Greek pederasty and were one of the chief export markets for Athenian vases displaying pederastic themes. Our knowledge of the early Roman Republic, however, is mostly legendary

1 Two girls on the cover of the fi rst issue of Funü shibao (the Women’s Eastern Times) look at an image of themselves on the cover of the fi rst issue of Funü shibao (fi gure 0.1). Th is self-refl exive portrait signals a new subject position for women as viewers rather than viewed, as knowers rather than known. It also heralds a new epistemology and a new politics grounded in everyday experience. Th is emphasis on practical quo- tidian experience would defi ne China’s early Republican commercial print culture and fold into its revolutionary twentieth