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Labor, Citizenship, and the Making of a Rural Land Market

runaway urbanization, accelerated transport, and expanded international trade. Everyone is familiar with the appalling health conditions in overcrowded port cities and factory towns, which remained neglected for a quarter of a century until Victorian reformers found a solution in the technology of sani- tary engineering. The importation of alien infectious diseases was more aggravating in its complexity. In the Americas, efforts to contain cholera were complicated by recurring yellow fever outbreaks, while Europe and Mediterranean Asia and North Africa were

-collateralized mortgages tend to auction future land to highest-bidder developers to pay off past debts, and the latter tend to build luxury proper- ties at price points prohibitive for the projected 250 million formerly rural residents who will populate China’s new middle class. This runaway urbanization creates yet another kind of disjuncture. As land financing and urban construction become primary revenue bases for local governments, rural localities engage in land seizures that displace large numbers of rural residents from the farming land that otherwise pro- vides a fallback