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brothers that they should all come together after his cremation to be gemütlich, to eat, laugh, and indulge in bad jokes. T H E SCIENTIST The natural sciences are considered impersonal; the pioneer fig- ures, however outstanding, are overshadowed by the facts they have established. It is as if scientific research, in its impetus, had no time to concern itself with the personalities of its creators. Yet the work is very often stamped with the character of its maker. This was the case with Boveri. His mind and the nature of his work were portrayed soon after his

opportunities, and on-the-ground experience. Such a corps of returning citizen scientists constitutes an informed and expert volunteer group whose contributions are of increasingly high quality. Further, these citizen scientists can serve as volunteer leaders, helping new participants become familiar with the program and extending the reach of program staff. Benefits of long-term involvement are not limited to the program, however. Volunteers who choose to participate over a number of years often find personal value in educational oppor- tunities and deepening

Ill Scientists Disagree In our modern world people are supposed to live and die sub- ject to known, measurable natural forces, not subject to mys- terious moral agencies. That mode of reasoning, indeed, is what makes modern man modern. Science wrought this change between us and nonmoderns. It is hardly true, how- ever, that their universe is more unknown than ours. For any- one disposed to worry about the unknown, science has actually expanded the universe about which we cannot speak with con- fidence. In one direction, parsecs and megaparsecs enable people to

98 c h a p t e r 9 The Scientist The silence Willard Bascom imposed on Dr. David Brown lasted no more than four days. The following Friday, May 17, at  another public hearing, Brown publicly accused his boss of laundering SCCWRP’s research into bright, stainless conclu- sions instead of allowing his scientists the freedom to voice their belief that Santa Monica Bay was so polluted that its di- verse marine life had largely disappeared in places. And while the statement itself was fairly brief, Brown fi gured this should have ignited the city— should have

medicine, the state cultivated citizens able to appreciate and extend its power. The modernization of medical knowledge, care, and facilities, fi rst at home and later in the empire, was a common feature of state building in all the great powers. Japan’s emphasis on basic science, however, was unmatched in the empires of the West, where doctors were primarily clinicians, not scientists, and did not construct laboratory facilities of a quality equal to those in the metropole. To a greater extent than any other power, Japan used scientifi c medicine to justify

1 p r o l o g u e Surfer Scientist Dr. John Dorsey liked to call it black mayonnaise. That pretty much described the thick mat of sewage sludge that lay on the seafl oor some 320 feet below him as he hauled up a sediment sample from the area called Site 8A. The Marine Surveyor, the twenty- year- old boat he had taken to this point seven miles off- shore, barely rocked on the early summer seas, and it seemed as though the Pacifi c Ocean that surrounded him was pure, clean, and untouched. It wasn’t really. Some people called that sludge below him a dead

C H A P T E R 2 Young Scientist i Ernst Mach entered the University of Vienna in the fall of 1855 where he was finally free to concentrate on his favorite subjects, mathematics and physics. Unfortunately, his courses presupposed a knowledge of integral and differential calculus, and neither introductory classes nor easy textbooks on the subjects seemed to be available. Self-instruction and tutoring from his meager 30-gulden allowance per month gradually enabled him to learn the subjects well enough to keep up with his courses. Nor was Mach satisfied

135 sev e n Sick Hobbits, Quarrelsome Scientists It is disconcerting to realize that as their intellects were shaped and limited by the dogmas — often scientific — of their day, so may the intellect of the modern investigator be shaped by the a priori judgments of his time. Jacob W. Gruber Are we having fun yet? Zippy the Pinhead Discoveries of new hominin species that challenge scientific and reli- gious dogma have traditionally been greeted with skepticism by both sci- entists and laymen.1 This trend began in 1856 when fossilized bones from a Neanderthal

C H A P T E R 7 Scientists, Pseudoscientists, and Faddists On both sides of the Atlantic, the decades that straddled the turn of the century constituted a veritable Golden Age of food faddism. An unusually large array of vegetarians (who subdivided themselves like amoebae into fruitarians, nutarians, lacto-ovarians, and argued among themselves about whether fish was as harmful as meat) faced spirited challenges from aggres- sive meat-eaters who swore by regimens such as the Salisbury all-beef diet. ("Whatever merits vegetarians may claim for their diet

Anthropology and Modern Knowledge