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Orissa in 1959
British Working-Class Education in the Nineteenth Century

4 Consequences of Social Change Few generations anywhere have had to cope with social changes as massive as those that have unfolded in the lives of the current Jap- anese elderly. War was part of daily life among the Japanese, ending in massive destruction and devastating defeat. Equally disorienting was Japan's reconstruction and rise to economic leadership in the forty years following the war. A seventy-five-year-old man in 1990 would have been thirty years old when Japan was defeated in 1945; his generation not only fought the wars but also did the

XIV Environmental and Social Change Two histories could be written to throw light on the diffusion of plants, tools and techniques, ideas of social organization, ethical behavior, and religious belief from the mainland of Asia and the islands of Japan to Okinawa and the other islands of the Ryukyus: the history of the land and the history of the people. The history of the land would describe the great changes made in the physical environment as a consequence of plant introductions, the use of tools, fire, water, and stone to create, during a period of

CONCLUSION. POLITICS AND SOCIAL CHANGE The three parts of this book appear to be integrated with one another in a far from satisfactory way. The first resembles so- cial anthropology; the second looks like political science; and the third part might have been written by a somewhat hasty historian with sociological leanings. Is there a single conceptual framework into which the three parts fit? One difficulty is that Orissa is not a unity. It is not yet a single complex society, but an aggregate of many simple so- cieties, imperfectly linked into what may

A Study of Hindu-Tribal Relations

10 Federal Policy and Social Change In Part 1 we analyzed the nature of federal expenditure in the Mexican Revolution, and we have in the previous chapter directly examined the amount and rate of social change during ideological periods of political, social, and economic revolution. We are now able to bring these two different types of analyses together in order to present a tentative view of process in the Mexican Revolution. We shall discuss the limitation in attempting to relate federal ex- penditure directly to regional social change, and then turn to

C H A P T E R 3 Musical Patronage and Social Change Writing about Austro-Hungarian musical life in the early 1780s, the German musician and traveler Johann Friedrich Reichardt ( 1 9 1 5 ) says, "The court cultivates music passionately and the nobility have an inor- dinate love and knowledge of music." The motivations Reichardt attrib- uted to these Viennese music patrons (and which subsequently became part of the folklore of music history and a resource for explaining their enthusiastic support of serious music ideology) may have been more flat- tering

1 2 Social Changes New Forces and Factors World War I and the Great Depression had a tremendous impact on Central and Eastern European societies. The masses were mo- bilized and learned their own strength, but they were also humiliated and learned the strength of powerful states. Large groups were uprooted and traditional hierarchies were both attacked and defended. The nineteenth- century society that characterized backward peasant countries began to transform. The Peasantry In spite of its developing differentiation and the existence of a small, well

1 Social Change and Organizational Structure The large law firm dominates the market for private legal services in the United States. Such firms, having made dramatic gains in absolute size,1 encompass a growing proportion of lawyers2 and command an increasingly disproportionate share of the gross receipts for private legal services.3 Their position of leadership in the legal profession is nothing new. Virtually all scholarship on stratification among lawyers locates large firms at the top of the legal profession's status hierarchy (see, e.g., Carlin