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Protecting Home, Community, and Nation in a Chicago Neighborhood
Authority, Deference and Stable Democracy
A Study of Auto Workers in Suburbia

57 chapter 3 How Working-Class Chicas Get Working-Class Lives Since I spent my first days at Waretown High in a college-preparatory class (a class that fulfills a requirement for admission to either California State University or University of California institutions), the first stu- dents I met were college bound. Later I came to know these girls through the eyes of non-college-preparatory students as “the preps.” They were mostly white, but included a handful of Mexican-American girls. Some of the white girls were also known as “the 90210s,” after the popular

I NTR O D U CT I O N 1 In Search of Working-Class Chicago Chicago served as one of the first laboratories for early social scientists. For nearly a century, scholars from the University of Chicago have taken to the streets to examine life in urban America. American sociology was born in the city’s dilapidated neighborhoods of crowded tenements and cold-water flats. In 1907, Upton Sinclair’s literary masterpiece The Jungle created a devastating portrait of life in Chicago’s South Side slums and awakened Americans to the hardships faced by immigrant labor- ers and

77 beginning slowly during the first half century aft er the Civil War, the Great Migration of black people accelerated under the impact of two world wars and the Great Depression. Expanding employment oppor- tunities in the urban industrial economy opened an exciting and hopeful new chapter in the history of the black working class. While large numbers of black men and women would continue to work as general laborers and domestic servants in private households as well as a growing number of trade and transportation enterprises, manufacturing employment

Chapter Seven Rainbow's End: Machines, Immigrants, and the Working Class Cui Bono? The Beneficiary Debate The performance of the classic immigrant-based big-city machines has sparked a second controversy, which is concerned with the consequences of boss rule. During the machine's heyday, reformers had attacked the urban bosses for weakening democracy and pro- moting plutocracy. Traditional liberals such as James Bryce and M. Ostrogorski deplored the capture of the postbellum party sys- tem by professional officeseekers eager for patronage, power, and profit. For

C H A P T E R 8 The Family Economy and Working-Class Education THE DEMAND FOR EDUCATION: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Until now the analysis has taken the perspective mainly of those pressing for or providing working-class education: reformers, the ruling classes, the religious societies, community subscribers, and the state ad- ministration. This emphasis has concerned the supply side of education, with little consideration of its impact on its recipients or their interest in it. I have touched on the ways in which conditions of supply facilitated the spread of

THREE Labor Disputes and the Working Class in Tokyo Factory workers not only attended rallies and joined in riots from 1905 to 1918. Between 1897 and 1917 they elaborated two additional forms of collective action: the labor dispute and labor unions. The early evolu- tion of labor disputes in Tokyo is the concern of this chapter; the emer- g(~nce of unions is addressed in chapter 4, as our focus narrows to the workers of Nankatsu. Riots, disputes, and union-organizing together constituted the working-class dimension to the movement for imperial democracy. The rise

161 the modern black freedom movement dismantled the segrega- tionist system. But a relentless long-term process of deindustrialization and resistance to the democratization of American society unraveled the socio- economic and political foundation of the new equal-opportunity regime. By the turn of the new century, these global changes had eclipsed the black urban industrial working class and precipitated a growing shift from grass- roots social movements to electoral politics as the most promising mode of political struggle in the wake of Jim Crow’s demise