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II When Did Rights Become “Rights”? From the Wars of Religion to the Dawn of Enlightenment In 1576 a three- volume work appeared in Geneva, with a false imprint, entitled Mémoires de l’état de France sous Charles IX. It contained a text that would go down in the annals of political thought: Etienne de La Boétie’s Discours sur la servitude volontaire, published there for the first time in full.1 The au- thor, who died in 1563, had penned this treatise as a college student, around mid- century; since then, it had circulated only in manuscript. Its sentences

perceived object of vision (white light); a thorough reversal of simple and complex. The divorce of optics from theory of vision is a paradoxical process. It does not refl ect a disengagement of the human eye from its objects. Quite the contrary: the observer disappears from optics because of the evolving un- derstanding of the eye as a natural, material optical instrument. It is the naturalization of the eye that begets the estrangement of the human ob- c h a p t e r o n e Science’s Disappearing Observer Baroque Optics and the Enlightenment of Vision 16 c h a p t e

Philosophical Families in Enlightenment France
The Sentimental Empiricists of the French Enlightenment
Scenes from an Unknown Enlightenment
Cartography in the European Enlightenment
Enlightenment Science and South America
Dangerous Experiments in the Age of Enlightenment
In Search of the Enlightenment Moment
Observation, Eclecticism, and Pietism in the Early Enlightenment