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15 France and the European Enlightenment If the ideals of the French Revolution could be so quickly exported (before they were imposed by force), it was also because the rest of Europe was already in the habit of following intel- lectual and other fashions set in Paris. Until now, I have mostly discussed the role played by French académiciens and other writ- ers in synthesizing an assortment of observations about the past and present states of society, culture, and learning into a uni- fi ed concept, or narrative, of the Enlightenment. But France also

o o 164 o M E DI AT E D E N L IG H T E N M E N T t h e s y s t e m o f t h e wo r l d oc l i f f o r d s i s k i n o When Kant answered the question, “What is Enlightenment?” in 1784, he defi ned it not only as a philosophical concept but also as a particular moment in history. “We do live,” he insisted, in an age of enlightenment” (Kant 2007). The irony, for us, of Kant’s confi dent assertion is that he made it at precisely the moment that has since come to mark the start of another age: the period we call Romantic. Kant’s certainty about his own age

• S I X • B O D H G A Y Ā The Buddha At tai n s Enl ighte nme nt After describing Sarnath, the site of the Buddha’s first sermon, Hyecho next writes about Bodh Gayā, the site of the Buddha’s enlightenment. It is un- clear from his description whether he visited these two of the famous “four sites” (the others being the place of the Buddha’s birth and the place of his death) in that order. If he did, Hyecho retraced the route of the Buddha himself, but in the opposite direction: after achieving enlightenment, the Buddha went out in search of the “group

348 16 The Reformation, Enlightenment, and French Revolution Leo Strauss: Now I turn to Mr. Schaefer’s paper. You had to take up the most difficult and grave questions.1 If I start from the last, what is the precise difference, stated simply, between Hegel and the Enlightenment? Mr. Schaefer: The Enlightenment believed that it had established what should be the proper role for all men’s thought, not only for the majority of men. Secondly, the Enlightenment believed that it could deduce the principles of morality from social instincts discovered in man

the hierarchies of a tonal spectrum, or ought we to hear its elements as vari- ables in tension between two extreme positions? To frame the question this way is to engage the music in the dialectical dramaturgy of Enlightenment thought. Without claiming to know what is the Enlightenment—or more to the point, what it was—I shall prefer, here and in the chapters that follow, to tease out those aspects of discourse—of music, of literature, of art and its criticism—that to my mind constitute a way of thinking, of holding a world teetering in ironic imbalance, of

domain of chymistry was transformed at the hands of the Bureau’s officials, with far- reaching technical, scientific, and cultural consequences. At the center of the story is the encroachment of mechanical philosophy on the knowl- edge areas of chymistry and chymical matter theory, as Conclusion: Material reality and the Enlightenment7 C H A P T E R 7 148 well as chymistry’s gradual transformation into mechanical and then mineralogical chemistry: a cameral science at the service of the state. But is the mechanization of chymistry really at the root of this story

o o 323 o F I N A N C I N G E N L IG H T E N M E N T, PA RT O N E m o n e y m at t e r s om a r y p o o v e y o Why should we think about money when we think about “Mediating En- lightenment”? Assuming that neither Ian Baucom (below) nor I will be able to tell you exactly who fi nanced the Enlightenment (which we cannot), and assuming that the Enlightenment primarily involved new assumptions about knowledge (which it did), how will adding money change the current un- derstandings of the Enlightenment? In these brief introductory remarks, I want to name

98 c h a p t e r f o u r Psychology in the Age of Enlightenment In his lectures of the 1770s, Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) advocated inte- grating empirical psychology into university curricula as an autonomous discipline. He argued that psychology had remained subordinated to meta- physics because metaphysics had been wrongly construed and because psy- chology had until then been insufficiently systematic and its field of study too limited. But now the moment had come (as it had for anthropology) for it to acquire a place of its own alongside other university

o o 336 o F I N A N C I N G E N L IG H T E N M E N T, PA RT T WO e x t r ao r d i n a ry e x p e n d i t u r e oi a n b a u c o m o Mary Poovey’s essay “Financing Enlightenment, Part One,” off ers a reverse chronology of some of the stages through which money loses its history, isolating fi ve moments: the 1950 publication of Hannah Arendt’s Origins of Totalitarianism and—moving backward—the publication in 1930 of John Maynard Keynes’s Treatise on Money, in 1875 of W. Stanley Jevon’s Money, in 1810 of William Cobbett’s Paper against Gold, and in 1755 of

1. Dickens, Hard Times (1854), chap. 1, 1–2. Chapter One introduction: sensibility and enlightenment science This book is about the sentimental youth of scientific empiricism, andabout a time and place in which its dramas of self-definition were cen- ter stage: eighteenth-century France. Later, and for much of its four-century tenure at the heart of European culture, empiricism— the doctrine that nat- ural knowledge originates in observation and experiment—came to have a hardnosed, unemotional reputation. Charles Dickens’s Mr. Gradgrind— im- placably demanding