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, unsurprisingly, a frangible term. And yet its bracketing dates encompass a distinct phase of modernity. “Enlightenment” is also a period term, but in addition it signifi es an alleged congeries of events in Western history: the rise of reason, the spread of illumination, and a quickening in the long process of secularization. Where Romanticism traditionally signifi ed widespread al- terations in the styles of art, Enlightenment signaled a world- changing alteration in the very bases of Western culture. Like Romanticism, the term “Enlightenment” has been critiqued into

 Th e Contradictions of Enlightenment and the Crisis of Modernity On a cold and rainy January day in 1793, a corpulent gentleman, just thirty- eight years old, stepped out of his carriage in the midst of a hostile Parisian crowd. He loosened his scarf, turned down his collar, and with some as- sistance ascended the steep steps of the scaff old. Speaking in a surprisingly loud voice, he declared himself innocent, pardoned those who were about to kill him, and prayed that his blood would not be visited upon his coun- try before placing his neck on the block of

40 T w o “False or Defective” Appetite in the Medical Enlightenment In the early eighteenth century the attitudes of physicians toward ancient teachings on appetite, ingestion, and diges- tion were divided. Many physicians continued to extol the Hippocratic tradition, with its emphasis on particularity in health and sickness and the supreme value of bedside observation. Indeed, from the late seventeenth century a “Hippocratic revival” that gave new force to such views got under way.1 Self- declared Hippocratists who regarded ap- petite as highly

* 2 * A New Public Nietz sche: Enlightenment Optimist In late 1876 or early 1877 Nietz sche wrote a workbook entry intended for Things Human All Too Human: “To readers of my earlier writings I want to state explicitly that I have abandoned the metaphysical- artistic views that in all essentials rule them: those views are comfortable but untenable” (KSA 8 23 [159]). But his huge 1878 book nowhere states explicitly that he had abandoned the untenable metaphysical- artistic views of his fi rst fi ve books. Instead, he left it to a reader made faithful by his

6 The Radical Enlightenment of Spinoza and Kant I’m not finished. Edward Scissorhands What Is Enlightenment? Kant’s essay, “An Answer to the Question ‘What Is En- lightenment?’ ” is remembered for his exhortation “Sa- pere Aude! Have the courage to use your own understand- ing! . . . in matters of religion, as in all matters.”1 Although readers continue to find much to do to comprehend Kant’s dare in his time, I am interested, it will be clear, in the ques- tion, How is it going? Is this a recognizable question? The Enlightenment is the designation for the

254 Preparation of this chapter was supported in part by a grant from the Athena program of the Swiss National Science Foundation. 1. Dictionnaire philosophique, article “Loi naturelle,” in Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire, vol. 34 (Paris: Armand-Ambrée, 1829), 157– 60, here 160. Following the Kehl edition (1784 –89), these Oeuvres collect under one title all of Voltaire’s dictionary-like works. 2. Jean Ehrard, L’idée de nature en France dans la première moitié du XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Albin Michel, 1994 [1963]). 10 Onanism, Enlightenment Medicine, and the

10 Economizing Agricultural Resources in the German Economic Enlightenment ma r cu s pop p low Investigations into the properties of materials, which brought “artisanal” and “learned” knowledge into contact in the early modern period, concerned not only the arts and crafts, as the domain where materials were turned into fi n- ished products, but also agriculture, as the domain where many such materi- als, including foods, were produced.1 This chapter investigates strategies for increasing the production of domestic agrarian resources by creating bod- ies of

a broad range of concerns, most signifi cantly, perhaps, those related to the promises and perils of the modern industrial age. Specifi cally, those android automata that were made during the Enlightenment have played an infl uential role in our understanding of modern industrial society and the human-machine boundary in it, either directly or through texts. Enlightenment automata were spectacu- lar and innovative self-moving objects and, in regard to mechanical complexity, the most sophisticated of their kind compared to not only earlier but also later

T H E I TA L I A N E N L I G H T E N M E N T R E F O R M O F T H E Q U E R E L L E D E S F E M M E S Woman has an extra-fine intellect, But the shrewd man will not let her study. If woman were educated, sorry man Would be seen to spin at the distaff. And if a woman uses her intellect, Man will be on the bottom and woman on top. —Carlo Goldoni THE OTHER VOICE During the course of the Italian Enlightenment (1700–1789), 1 four women, Giuseppa Eleonora Barbapiccola, Aretafila Savini de’ Rossi, Maria Gaetana Agnesi, and Diamante Medaglia Faini, joined the vigorous and

Enlightenment Lorraine Daston Introduction: There Be Gods Even Here The most oft-quoted mottoes of the Enlightenment did not just commit what philosopher G. E. Moore was later to call the “naturalistic fallacy,” 1 they insisted upon it: “Whatever is, is right.” 2 This essay is about the ways in which value in nature was created in eighteenth-century natural history, with an emphasis on practices rather than theses: how certain regimens of experience (rather than proofs and arguments) established nature’s values in an age that looked to nature as its guide in every realm, from