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Enlightenment Lorraine Daston Introduction: There Be Gods Even Here The most oft-quoted mottoes of the Enlightenment did not just commit what philosopher G. E. Moore was later to call the “naturalistic fallacy,” 1 they insisted upon it: “Whatever is, is right.” 2 This essay is about the ways in which value in nature was created in eighteenth-century natural history, with an emphasis on practices rather than theses: how certain regimens of experience (rather than proofs and arguments) established nature’s values in an age that looked to nature as its guide in every realm, from

~EPILOGUE~ The Mysteries of Enlightenment; or Dr. Freud's Gothic Novel Literary histories, including histories of Gothic, usually follow the genealogical model: they give us a "family tree." In this book, I have used the term "poetics" because I wanted to resist as much as possible the seductions of "family" as a basic conceptual metaphor, particularly since the metaphor was also a theme of this investigation. And yet, this poetics of Gothic has also, inevitably, created an alternative genealogy; it suggests some unexpected ancestors, it divides the family into

 Matter, Force, and the Christian Worldview in the Enlightenment Thomas H. Broman  n the minds of most people, historians and nonhistorians alike, the eighteenth-century Enlightenment occupies a pivotal position in the evolving relationship between science and religion. For it was during the Enlightenment that the cultural landscape of Europe was first re- shaped in a way that enabled “science” and “religion” to emerge as separate and hostile camps in a long polemical struggle. That the En- lightenment did play this part in defining the relationship between

Chapter twenty Religious Freedom in the Panopticon of Enlightenment Rationality Peter G. Danchin The contract may have been regarded as the ideal foundation of law and political power; panopticism constituted the technique, universally widespread, of coercion. It continued to work in depth on the juridical structures of society, in order to make the effective mecha- nisms of power function in opposition to the formal framework that it had acquired. The “Enlightenment,” which discovered the liberties, also invented the disciplines.—Michel Foucault, Discipline

E I G H T Western Time and the Rhetoric of Enlightenment So far, we have seen how both scholars and lay people of Tokugawa Japan gradually began associating Western- style timekeeping with advancement and sophistication. For astronomers and navigators the emergence of such associations was a matter of the evolution of calculational practices. Lay people, who got a glimpse of astronomers’ concerns through the work of clock- makers, came to appreciate Western clocks as intricate mechanical devices associated with celestial movement. But fascination with

c h a p t e r 7 Leibnizianism and the Solidifi cation of the French Enlightenment By 1740, the French Newton wars were in full swing. Voltaire was at the center of the struggle, and one theater of combat was the campaign, waged by him and the Marquise du Châtelet, to respond to his critics while stabilizing his public perception as a philosophe. Du Châtelet’s agendas, however, did not always conform with Voltaire’s, especially as she began to chart her own philosophical career. Against each as well stood a host of diff erent opponents. These included

~ SIX ~ Cartography in the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment The dissemination of knowledge made possible by the invention of printing in Europe in the last decades of the fifteenth century was an important factor in the spectacular increase in scientific activity that fol- lowed. With the publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543, Nicholas Copernicus (Niklas Koppernigk, Mikolaj Kopernik), who real- ized that the earth is a planet, revived the heliocentric theory of the universe proposed centuries earlier by Aristarchus. Copernicus

201 S I X In this fi nal chapter, I follow the path taken by the fi g- ure of the “Enlightenment automaton” in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The journey demonstrates how versatile the fi gure was and traces how the automaton be- came a symbol of human-machine relations in the indus- trial age. I outline broad developments, such as the forma- tion of historical and literary disciplines and engineering education in the Second Industrial Revolution, and I also look in detail at individual texts, such as passages from Marx’s Capital, Thomas Carlyle

c h a p t e r t w o Enlightenment and Denominationalism in Jefferson’s Virginia The relatively small size of all American colleges at the end of the eighteenth century underscored the absence of an intellectual class in America. The emer ­ gence of any concentration of college­ educated individuals had to respond to the distinctive features of colonial settlement. For the most part, New England had fewer groups of well­ educated citizens but had the distinctive advantage of lower mortality rates. Certainly, by the late seventeenth century, New En­ gland no

42 C h a p t e r 2 Creaturely Origins: Enlightenment Naturalism and the Animal Voice In this chapter I read the work of three major Enlightenment philoso-phers of community, focusing on the surprising insistence of the crea- turely voice at the moment in which the human is understood to be con- stituted as a political, social, or speaking subject. To conceptualize in naturalistic terms the appearance of human self- difference— the symbolic, the conventional, the historical— as an overcoming of animal fi xity, these thinkers required a return to the animal