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27 O N E Natural Knowledge and the Learned Public in the Enlightenment “Naturwissenschaft” fi rst appeared in the early eighteenth century as a synonym for physica, or natural philosophy.1 Three decades after its debut, it was still not common enough to be included in Christoph Ernst Steinbach’s 1734 German dictionary.2 Just a few years later, however, J. H. Zedler’s encyclopedia listed it as one of several possi- ble synonyms for “natural philosophy,” and by the 1770s, the term was in wide circulation.3 By the late eighteenth century, it was also used

the terror of the event and its appalling cost in lives and property. The storm was widely interpreted by the authors of pam- phlets and sermons as an act of divine punishment for the sins of human- ity. Traditionally, extraordinary events of this kind had been thought of as direct interventions by God, interruptions of the normal order of nature. They had often also been seen as omens of war or political change. By the { 2 } Public Weather and the Culture of Enlightenment If we come into a more contracted Assembly of Men and Women, the Talk generally runs

165 5 SPACELESS PLAY oSkar SchlEmmEr’S Dan c e a g ai n s t e n l i gh t e n m e n t Prelude in Vienna: Against Enlightenment Vienna. September 1924. The International Exhibition of New Theater Tech- nology, a curatorial extravaganza organized by painter, designer, architect, and impresario Friedrich Kiesler, presented over six hundred drawings, photographs, maquettes, models, and figurines, as well as performances and screenings that spanned theater, dance, and cinema from nearly every branch of the avant- garde: Italian futurism, German expressionism

4 Reinventing the Wheel: Emulation in the European Enlightenment Every improvement . . . has arisen from our imitation of foreigners; and we ought so far to esteem it happy, that they had previously made advances in arts and ingenuity. . . . [H]ad they not first instructed us, we should have been at present barbarians; and did they not still continue their instructions, the arts must fall into a state of languor, and lose that emulation and novelty, which contribute so much to their advancement.1 d av i d h u m e , “Of the Jealousy of Trade” In 1784, a

O N E Emplacements: Medicine, the Navy, and the Enlightenment Heritage Naval and colonial medicine arose in the early modern era as part of France’s maritime activities and the emergence of a Royal Navy. This chapter examines the industrial, colonial, and military contexts of this emergence with special reference to the three naval ports of Brest, Rochefort-sur-Mer, and Toulon. The story includes lifeworlds of squalor and labor conducted within or on the margins of the navy’s discrete regulatory regime—a source of the navy’s alterity. After 1689 the naval

o o 1 o T H I S I S E N L IG H T E N M E N T a n i n v i tat i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a n a r g u m e n t oc l i f f o r d s i s k i n a n d w i l l i a m wa r n e r o “What is Enlightenment?” Sometimes, Francis Bacon observed, “a question remains a mere question” for “centuries.”  “Mediating Enlightenment Past and Present,” an international conference organized by Cliff ord Siskin at New York University, with William Warner in California and Knut Ove Eliassen in Norway, sought answers to many questions about Enlightenment. We now invite you

postscript The Idea of “New Enlightenment” [Nouvelles Lumières] and the Contradictions of Universalism é t i e n n e b a l i b a r Translated by Vivian Folkenflik I am taking the expression “new Enlightenment”—“nouvelles Lumières”— from the philosopher Jacques Derrida, who used it emphatically if somewhat enigmatically in his written and spoken work during the 1990s and early years of the twenty-first century, especially the second part of Voyous (2003), which he devoted to the future of reason.1 Indeed, he had already remarked at the 1994 Parlement

7 c h a p t e r o n e I Against I: Stressing the Dialectic in the Dialectic of Enlightenment 1. IntroDuctIon the Dialectic of Enlightenment, Adorno’s cooperative effort with Max Horkheimer, serves as the backdrop to all of Adorno’s subsequent thinking about freedom. For this reason it is essential to understand Hork- heimer and Adorno’s aspirations with this text, especially the critique of modernity found there. unfortunately this is no easy task— the Dialectic of Enlightenment has been read alternatively as elaborating an “ ‘excess’ Enlightenment,”1 as a

o o 189 o T H E PR E S E N T O F E N L IG H T E N M E N T t e m p o r a l i t y a n d m e d i at i o n i n k a n t, f ou c au lt, a n d j e a n pau l oh e l g e j o r d h e i m o In his famous essay on the Enlightenment, “Qu’est- ce que les Lumières?” (What Is Enlightenment?) from 1984, Michel Foucault presents a reading of Kant’s article from the Berlinische Monatsschrift , “Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufk lärung?” (An Answer to the Question: What Is Enlightenment?) from 1783. Foucault argues that the novelty of Kant’s essay lies “in the

3 Th e Spirit of the Moderns: From the New Science to the Enlightenment In 1719 the abbé Jean-Baptiste Dubos, who would be elected to the Académie française the following year and would subse- quently serve as its perpetual secretary, surveyed the current state of artistic and intellectual life in France (and beyond) in what would become one of the most infl uential eighteenth- century treatises on aesthetics, the Réfl exions critiques sur la poésie et la peinture. Voltaire would later call this work “the most useful book ever written on such subjects in