Search Results

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 6,205 items :

  • "Enlightenment" x
Clear All

c o d a Instituting the French Enlightenment Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie Too many historians have recognized Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie as the defi ning text of the French Enlightenment to warrant a justifi cation of that claim here. Just as many have argued that the project’s initial publication, scandalous reception, and eventual prohibition were the key catalysts in the formation of the Enlightenment as a French social movement. Given this, I fur- ther take this claim for granted. What has not often been stressed, however, is

c h a p t e r 2 Sources of Enlightenment Newtonianism Toward a New Climate of Science in France after 1715 Between the publication of Newton’s Principia in 1687 and the death of its author in 1727, the tenor of intellectual life within the Republic of Letters un- derwent a transformation. The change resulted in a new comfort with openly partisan criticism, one that made possible the critical energies of the Newton wars and those in turn of the French Enlightenment. Before the Enlighten- ment, Ann Goldgar writes, “the most common concern of the members

Westernizers were galva- nized by his Occidental gradient; they searched heaven and earth for Russia’s providential purpose.3 In the annals of the Russian intelligentsia, the Chaadaev aff air is an old tale. Yet he showed how borderlands became integral to notions of empire in a totalizing way. Chaadaev threatened a blank slate: since Catherine’s expand- ing state was of the fi rst rank, or so she claimed in 1767, the logic of expansion dictated that Russia had the right to a “European” and “Asiatic” place in the c h a p t e r t w o Enlightenment to Romantic

o o 209 o T H E S T R A N G E L IG H T O F P O S T C O L O N I A L E N L IG H T E N M E N T m e d i at i c f o r m a n d p u b l i c i t y i n i n d i a oa r v i n d r a j a g o pa l o Kant defi nes Enlightenment, it is well known, as a people’s overcoming of their self- incurred tutelage. Some restrictions are considered necessary; the measure for distinguishing between what kinds of restrictions obstruct and those that promote enlightenment are to be decided on the basis of what lim- its a people would choose to impose upon themselves (Kant 1997

collective and political. While one person can communicate ideas, it takes a group of persons acting together to transmit ideas, objects, and values through time. Finally, while what we communicate can be trivial and (like the latest media event) last only for a moment, we transmit what we most value, those precious things that we believe we cannot live without: schools transmit knowledge; churches and temples transmit religious faith; parents transmit a family’s distinct way of life to their children; and, in the modern epoch, at least since the Enlightenment

131 4 Space, Time, and Chemistry Making Enlightenment “Photography” in the 1860s By boat and by the banks of the River Thames, Joseph Mallord William Turner watched the Palace of Westminster burn through the night of Octo- ber 16, 1834. Turner (1775–1851) made numerous sketches and, later, two oil paintings of the destructive spectacle. Flames explode in scintillating fire- works from the combusting palace at left in Turner’s first exhibited oil ver- sion, a picture both shown and partially made in the gallery of the British Institution in February 1835

early Enlightenment. Montesquieu does not mention natural rights in any of his major works; the concept is missing from La Mettrie’s books of the late 1740s; and it is almost entirely absent from Voltaire’s pre- 1750 writings.1 The subsequent interest in rights by French authors after 1750 is thus all the more intriguing, as is the story of how the preservation regime came to prevail. This chapter explores how and why rights ultimately became a salient feature of Enlightenment political discourse, and uncovers the critical role played in this story by a rather

15 c h a p t e r o n e The First Wave: Jewish Enlightenment Bibles in Yiddish and German Works DiscussED Jekuthiel ben isaac Blitz. Torah Nevi’im u’Khtuvim: Bilshon Ashkenaz (Bible: in the Yid- dish language). Amsterdam: uri Phoebus Ben- Aharon Halevi, 1678. Joseph ben Alexander Witzenhausen. Torah Nevi’im u’Khtuvim (Bible). Amsterdam: Joseph Athias, 1679. Moses Mendelssohn. Sefer Netivot HaShalom . . . im Targum Ashkenazi (The book of the paths of peace, including the Five Books of Moses with scribal corrections and Ger- man translation). Berlin: George

II When Did Rights Become “Rights”? From the Wars of Religion to the Dawn of Enlightenment In 1576 a three- volume work appeared in Geneva, with a false imprint, entitled Mémoires de l’état de France sous Charles IX. It contained a text that would go down in the annals of political thought: Etienne de La Boétie’s Discours sur la servitude volontaire, published there for the first time in full.1 The au- thor, who died in 1563, had penned this treatise as a college student, around mid- century; since then, it had circulated only in manuscript. Its sentences

perceived object of vision (white light); a thorough reversal of simple and complex. The divorce of optics from theory of vision is a paradoxical process. It does not refl ect a disengagement of the human eye from its objects. Quite the contrary: the observer disappears from optics because of the evolving un- derstanding of the eye as a natural, material optical instrument. It is the naturalization of the eye that begets the estrangement of the human ob- c h a p t e r o n e Science’s Disappearing Observer Baroque Optics and the Enlightenment of Vision 16 c h a p t e