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The Ideal and Its History

, as we have together designed and edited Cartography in the European Enlightenment, an experience that has tested and tem- pered many of my ideas. And my wife Kathryn has long been a wonderful and loving support (and occasional sounding board). I am honored to dedicate this book to two couples who have materially pro- moted the field of map history with their philanthropic support and who, in the process, have advanced my own career. Art and Jan Holzheimer provided the fund- ing that permitted me to complete my dissertation, but that was just one small drop in

children. He traveled widely in the United States and in Eu- rope. Philosophers like to hold forth on the infl uence of Kant, but what actual impact he had on German and Western culture is one of the great sociological unknowns. There is no doubt, however, that Jefferson had a strong hand in shaping the beginning of the United States, its geographical extent, its educational system, its architec- ture, and, to sum it up, its culture. But both were men of the Enlightenment and were profoundly attuned to the rational and egalitarian spirit of their time. Reason was

, and everyday life. Within social theory, there are still passionate arguments concerning whether the capitalist economy, a democratic polity, an Enlightenment cultural revolution, the Protestant ethic à la Weber, urbanization and social differentiation, or—as I would argue—a concatenation of all of these factors is primarily responsible for the origins, development, and trajectory of the modern world (see Antonio and Kellner 1992). 236 Douglas Kellner Classical social theorists, like Habermas in our day but for different reasons, saw a positive potential in

quantification to the analysis of voluntary action. Quantitative sciences were no longer limited to the realm of inaction. Post-Enlightenment scientists embarked instead on the Faustian quest of extending the reach of measurement-based science to new spaces and exposing the most remote corners of the human psyche to its searching light. As a result, scientists increasingly described perceptual and communication processes in terms of stimulus, message, transmission, reception, and response—essential categories that would dominate numer- ous discourses well into the

body of his map (see the bottom third of fi g. 1.1) refl ected the economic, social, and cultural realities of life in the Rhine region during the sixteenth century. During this period, before cer- tain French philosophers and government offi cials claimed the Rhine as France’s “natural border,”14 the waterway existed as a signifi cant point of friendly contact between Alsatians and Badeners. Enlightenment ideas, Protestant beliefs, and commercial goods fl owed easily between the right and left banks of the Rhine. The Germanic dialects spoken on either side of

Mayne (London: Phaidon, 964), 3. Cited in Michel Foucault, “What Is Enlightenment?” in The Foucault Reader, ed. Paul Rabinow (New York: Pantheon, 984). 206 chapter 8 A search for constants, absolutes, and universals came along with a fasci- nation with the ephemeral, the fleeting, the unstable. The tenth of a second embodied this contradiction. In centuries marked by a constant search for faster and shorter moments of time, it remained a unit of salient impor- tance. Appearing at the crossroads of a number of discourses in science, literature, and philosophy, it

Egyptians, x Eiffel, Gustave, 144 Eiffel Tower, 140 Einstein, Albert, 17, 168, 175, 179–200, 203 electricity, photographs of, 137–42, 141f electric technologies, 63 empiricism, 10, 43, 130, 177–78, 206 Encke, Franz, 91 energism, 46 engraving, ix Enlightenment, 7–9, 13–14, 206–7 ennui, 54, 99 Epheyre, Charles. See Richet, Charles errors, random, 34, 42n73, 43, 212 etching, ix ether, the, 172–73, 172n53 ethics, 55, 202 evolution, 4, 126 exact sciences, 8n16, 16–17, 54, 121, 208 exercise, 70, 74, 76–77 Exner, Sigmund, 23 expeditions, 101, 115, 166–67 experimental psychology

. Chicago: Precedent Publishing. Barber, E. J. W. 2010. “Yet More Evidence from Çatalhöyük.” American Journal of Archae­ ology 114, no. 2: 343– 45. Barber, Peter. 2003. “King George III’s Topographical Collection: A Georgian View of Britain and the World.” In Enlightenment: Discovering the World in the Eighteenth Cen­ tury, edited by Kim Sloan, 158– 65. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books for the British Museum. ———. 2005a. “George III and His Geographical Collection.” In The Wisdom of George the Third: Papers from a Symposium at The Queen’s Gallery, Buckingham Palace

Two French sovereigns, military authorities, and their European counterparts. Borders entered into public conversation and became the idealized limits of “the nation” thanks to Enlightenment philosophers and other members of the French elite who brought the subject of France’s territorial boundaries into their “public sphere.”8 Second, the rise of nationalism in eighteenth- century France succeeded in shifting the bases for border delineations from traditional considerations of international strategy, military defense, and quid pro quo territorial exchanges