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C O N T E N T S List of Illustrations and Maps ix List of Tables xi Preface xiii Note on East India Company Coinage xvii Places Mentioned in the Text: Southern India and Northern India xviii Chronology of Events and the Expansion of the East India Company xx Chapter One The Ideologies and Practices of Mapping and Imperialism 1 PART ONE: THE ENLIGHTENMENT CONSTRUCTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE Chapter Two Observation and Representation 39 Chapter Three Surveying and Mapmaking 77 PART TWO: INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES AND CARTOGRAPHIC ANARCHY Chapter

Imperialism 5 framing developed in the early seventeenth century and focussed on the polity of the Mughal empire. These maps emphasized the seat of Mughal power in the northern plains. They also included the Mughal territories west of the Indus: the Punjab, the Hindu Kush, and on occa- sion Afghanistan. They omitted the peninsula.7 The three framings began to merge in the eighteenth century. In part, this was a manifestation of the Enlightenment's encyclopedic men- tality, which produced massive tomes intended to present all available knowledge to their bourgeois


errors I have made concerning the history of the East India Company are entirely my own responsibility. My fundamental topic is the multilayered conflict between the desire and the ability to implement the perfect panopticist survey, between what the British persistently thought they had accomplished and the hybrid cartographic image of India which they actually constructed, and between the ideals and practices of knowledge creation in the later Enlightenment. This book is not a detailed explication of all of the East India Company's surveyors and of their

C H A P T E R N I N E Scientific Practice: Incorporating the Rationality of Empire In the later Enlightenment, mapmaking was deemed to be a science. It was rooted in the empirical observation and measurement of natural phenomena. It reduced the world's complexity to an or- dered mathematical abstraction and did so not through some arbitrary classification but in a "rational" manner, according to the world's own structure. The rhetoric surrounding maps and mapmaking stressed car- tography's scientific character. James Gardner, for example, argued in April

true replication of South Asia's actual geography.1 Holdich's identification of the Great Trigonometrical Survey as the key contributor to the true representation of India is, historically speak- ing, a red herring. The survey's geodetic triangulation actually consti- tuted a technological fix for the Enlightenment's older ideal of certainty and truth. That ideal was based on the structural equivalence of the imaginary lines of longitude and latitude on the earth's surface with the same lines as drawn out on a sheet of paper: the structure of the map— the

time distinguishes them from short-lived, sporadic episodes of protest or collective behavior that have erupted throughout history. Carried out by young people in their late adoles- cence or early adulthood, youth movements are a product of modern history, stimulated by the Enlightenment, indus- trialization, expanding middle classes, youth populations, and education. Th e fi rst full-fl edged youth movement in the West, the Burschenschaft en (student unions), originated in Germany in 1815 over the issue of nationalism and was followed by fi ve historical

ideal: assumptions of, 23; British surveys of India and, 22-23; in East India Company mapping policy, 32; Enlightenment epistemology in, 17, 26; practical limitations of, 26-27 cartography: as British activity, 32; carto- graphic culture, 36; cartographic model of natural history, 50,51; cartographic practice inscribing imperial space, 319- 40; cultural conceptions of space in, 31 - 32,300; coining of term, 42; colonial, 35; histories of, 23,352n. 29; as human en- deavor, 32; institutional structures and cartographic anarchy, 119-45; route sur- veys for, 92

Series." Cartographica 28, no. 4 (1991): 59-91. . "British Military Education, Mapmaking, and Military 'Map-Minded- ness' in the Later Enlightenment." The Cartographic Journal 31, no. 1 (1994): 14-20. . "Defining a Unique City: Surveying and Mapping Bombay after 1800." In From Bombay to Mumbai: Changing Perspectives, edited by Pauline Rohatgi. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1997. . "Mapping and Empire: British Trigonometrical Surveys in India and the European Concept of Systematic Survey, 1799-1843." Ph.D. diss., Univer- sity of Wisconsin-Madison, 1990. . "The

Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989), identified as a key element in Enlightenment thought. 27. Stephen M. Stigler, The History of Statistics: The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986), 11-158. On the shift from theory to praxis, see Volker Bialas, Erdgestalt, Kosmologie und Weltanschauung: Die Geschichte der Geodasie als Teil der Kulturgeschichte der Menscheit (Stuttgart: Konrad Winter, 1982); and Anne Godlewska, "Traditions, Crisis, and New Paradigms in the Rise of the

- ern state and the Enlightenment's reformulation of space. The reconfi- guration of each state's territories was not perhaps so ambiguous as that of British India. The construction of geographical panopticons by Eu- ropean states did entail the improvement and rationalization of terri- torial space, in order to make state control more efficient and effective. The agents of each state were much closer to the populations which were brought within the state's purview, so that European state forma- Inscribing an Imperial Space 339 tion did not require the same degree