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bodies of knowledge were thought to relate to one another. Encyclopedias also tell us how knowledge is to be received, how it is to be read, and what is at stake in the acquisition of its contents. And as any scholar of the Enlightenment would attest, encyclopedias are also highly politicized artifacts. The history of the famous French Encyclopédie, for example, was filled with conflict, tur- moil, and political intrigue. At times, its production was officially suspended and its contents suppressed, and the possibility of these actions haunted the project for

. Tkacz, 221–25. Amsterdam: Insti- tute of Network Cultures. Darnton, R. 1987. The Business of Enlightenment: A Publishing History of the Encyclopédie, 1775– 1800. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. r e f e r e n c e s 201 de Certeau, M. 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life. Translated by S. Rendall. Berkeley: University of California Press. De Cock, C., and S. Bohm. 2007. “Liberalist Fantasies: Zizek and the Impossibility of the Open Society.” Organization 14 (6): 815–36. Debord, G. 1994. The Society of the Spectacle. Translated by D

Aragon, XXI,5, 17,29 Ehzabeth I (queen of England), XXII, 110 eloquence, power of, 10 Elyot, SIr Thomas, Defenceof Good Women,XXIlI Enlightenment. xv Ep,stolae torattones(Fedele), 3, 8-9 equality, of women In contemporary life, VIl Equicola, Mano, XIX,On Women,XXI Erasmus, Desidenus, XVIIl Eve (BIble), XI, XXIIl FaerieQueen,The (Spenser), XXIlI farrnly, treatises on, XVIII Fedele, Angelo, 4 Fedele, Balthassare, 4, 35, 36-40 Fedele, Cassandra, XX,appearance, 6, attempts to move to Spain. 5, 18- 23,36, 104, biographer, 13n 4, birth, 4, child prodigy, 4, death, 6, 7

, market, 239-40, 243 Education, type of, 242, 245-46, 249 Elitism, critique of, 239 Empirical: core of science, 10, 192; component of scientific work, 10; attack, 98 Enlightenment: Period, 7, 118; Philosophy, 2; post-, 7; myth of, 252, 254 Ends: 118, 198-99; conflicting mul- tiple, 188-193; in narrative ac- counts, 211; and pluralism, 266 episteme, 2, 110, 294 Epistemic: implications, 18; ground- ing, 22; theory, 163; commit- ments, 258; politics, 261 Epistemological: superiority, 107; problem, 109; certainty, 162; anarchism, 261 Epistemology: 2, 109

, 129 Rowson, Susannah, 59, 69, 77, 135 Royall, Anne, 191 Rush, Benjamin, 19, 21, 70 Russell, Amelia, 77 Ryan, Mary, 124 Salem Observer, 191 salons, 61, 70–71 school attendance, 22, 57–58 schoolbooks, 8–10, 17–19, 21–22, 24–28, 33–35, 39–41, 43–46, 51–52, 55–57, 59–65, 68–72, 84–88, 93, 100– 101, 104, 107–10, 212; biographical sketches in, 17, 41–43, 45–46, 65, 69–72 schoolchildren, 8, 13, 84–85, 88–89 School of Wisdom, 40 schools. See education schoolteachers, 8, 22, 30–31 Scott, Joan, 5 Scottish Enlightenment, 58–59, 76, 82, 181 Secondary Lessons, 107 Sedgwick

elections, 31, 35, 120, 129, 156 Emergent Bureaucracy, 92. See also Carr, Nicholas Enciclopedia Libre Universal en Español (EL), 144–48, 151 encyclopedia 3, 6–8, 10–11, 28, 49, 54, 56, 59–60, 62–64, 67, 75, 77, 80, 84–86, 100–101, 105, 108– 10, 119, 152; history, 4–5 Encyclopédie, 4, 5, 10 Enlightenment, 4, 5, 10, 76 entomology, 45 Enyedy, Edgar, 144–47, 150–63, 165–66, 168–72, 174–75, 176 escape, 126 exchange, 4, 30, 34–36, 131 Exclusion Compliant, 116, 123 ex corpore, 88, 124–25, 181 exit, 8–10, 41, 126, 129–30, 134–35, 138–39, 146, 148, 173, 176, 179, 181. See also

stamps filing cabinets lines of grumpy-looking people Now repeat the exercise, placing a concrete noun in the center and abstract nouns at the spoke ends. Example: warmth destruction anger FIRE passion purification enlightenment Just about any idea or emotion can be illustrated using concrete images. Likewise, a single concrete noun can invoke a surprisingly complex range of abstractions. Good writers exploit the relationship between concrete and abstract language by remaining attentive to the subtleties of both. 28 WritersDiet Test example 2 How are names for

theorists and critics in dozens of fields have elected to rally around a term that is so often preceded by the words mere, only, or just. That rhetoric should these days be allowed on center stage in matters "where truth and knowledge are concerned" may be a reflection of our times. Typically it has been accorded such attention only as a foil for philosophy or where philosophy was a bit down in the dumps and in need of an understudy. 3 We live in an age, however, in which the philosophical moorings of inquiry have been found none too secure. Enlightenment

of Enlightenment, tracing the contours of another holocaust. A compressed explanation of instrumental reason will do for now; later I will deal more explicitly with how rhetoricians of inquiry can use Hork- heimer and Adorno's theory. Instrumental reason is a calculation of means and ends, which establishes the world as an object of control, thus circumscribing it, excluding from thought both mythical and mysterious discourses, the traditional discourses of religion. Instrumental reason, however, also excluded from public speech and writing the discourse of

began to build a new understand- ing of who they were, as expatriate Russians. Trubetzkoy was a leader in a group that developed what they called Eurasianism, whose goal was to create a vision of the world, founded on both the Greco- Byzantine heritage and (lest we forget where we Russians came from) the Mongol conquest. Eurasianists rejected what came from the West: the Western tradition of the Enlightenment, and all those other trends that emerged from it, like socialism and communism in the nineteenth century. The Eurasianist view of Europe was that Europe