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. In short, the incorporation of the medical field into philosophy presents an opportunity for the latter to deal in a significant way with the questions of human morality and mortality. The application of moral philosophy to medicine in the discipline of medical ethics is timely. Contemporary moral philosophy faces a crisis of xiv i n t r o d u c t i o n authority, described by Alasdair MacIntyre (1981) in his well­known book, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. MacIntyre argues that this crisis of authority is a breakdown of the Enlightenment attempt to

of, 87; discov- ery of, 87–88. See also conception ejaculation, 25, 33, 309n6; proof of, 36–37. See also premature ejaculation electricity: as cure for impotence, 86, 118, 128, 135, 138–39, 143, 144, 164, 182; and Mesmerism, 86 Eliot, George: Middlemarch, 119 Elliot, Carl, 260 Ellis, Albert, 208, 224 Ellis, Havelock, 174, 302n61 endocrinology, rise of, 181, 185–87, 189–96, 200–204, 207. See also hormones enhancement technologies, 258–60; and male consumers, 260 Enlightenment: and critique of Catholic Church, 91–93; views on impotence held during, xvi, 77

, Helen. Spitting Blood: The History of Tuberculosis. Oxford: Oxford Uni- versity Press, 2012. Bynum, William F. “Nosology.” In Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, edited by William F. Bynum and Roy Porter, 1:335–56. London: Routledge, 1993. ———. Science and the Practice of Medicine in the Nineteenth Century. Cam- bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Bynum, William F., and Vivian Nutton, eds. Theories of Fevers from Antiquity to the Enlightenment (Medical History supplement, no. 1). London: Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, 1981

- torian Jean Starobinski, wrote an accompanying monograph that is the most complete cultural history of generosity as charity. Starobinski suggests three historical periods of generosity: ancient, Christian, and Enlightenment. Starobinski’s description of gift giving among the ancient Romans anticipates Levinas’s emphasis on the nonreciprocity of generosity: “The act of giving without being paid in return placed a man almost among the ranks of the divine.” He quotes several ancient writers on the theme that a person’s spiritual possessions cannot exceed what they have

infallible certainty or an error prone form of practical reasoning that, as will be seen, character- izes debates about intuition in medicine. Intuition also occupied a central place in the Enlightenment philosopher Immanuel Kant’s (174–1804) epistemology. In his celebrated Critique of Pure Reason Kant outlined a theory of synthetic a priori judgments. Accord- ing to Kant’s conception, pure intuition of space and time made possible 4 c h a p t e r o n e knowledge of first truths, as well the possibility of outer experience. Thus, space and time are the “two pure

-Based Medicine and the Search for a Science of Clinical Care. Berkeley: University of California Press. 214 b i b l i o g r a p h y d’Amador, R. 1836. “Memoire sur le calcul des probabilités appliqué a la médecine.” Bulletin de l’Académie Royale de Médecine 1: 622–80. Damasio, A. R. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Con- sciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co. Daston, L. 1988. Classical Probability in the Enlightenment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Davidoff, E. 1999. “In the Teeth of the Evidence: The Curious Use of

direct certainty, 27 determinism, 105, 111, 140–41 Detienne, Marcel, 74, 191n16 disease, 48, 58, 71, 104, 130, 136–37, 139–40, 147; causa- tion, 145–47; as a state of passion, xiii; theories of, 143, 148 divination, 5, 70, 73, 76, 101, 168 Doll, Richard, 201n25 double effect, law of, 37 drug addiction, 11 dualism. See Cartesian dualism ecological fallacy, 145–46 Edelstein, Ludwig, xv, 47 Edgeworth, Ysidro, 132 Elstein, Arthur, 107 empiricism, xxiii, 1, 5, 48, 129, 146, 155, 157, 167, 173–74, 193n30 Engelhardt, Tristram, 8, 12, 39–40 Enlightenment, xiv–xv, 6, 79, 184n

Press, 2000), 133. 55. Felicity A. Nussbaum, The Brink of All We Hate: English Satires on Women, 1660– 1750 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1984), 57– 76; Leo Braudy, “Remembering Masculinity: Premature Ejaculation Poetry of the Seventeenth Century,” Michigan Quarterly Review 33 (1994): 177– 201; Crébillon fi ls (Claude-Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon), The Sofa (1742), in Michel Feher, ed., The Libertine Reader: Eroticism and Enlightenment in Eighteenth-Century France (New York: Zone Books, 1997), 255. 56. Thomas Hamilton, Earl of Haddington, A Select

Expertise, and the Gross Anatomy Lab. New York: Routledge. Frank, P. 2015. “UCLA’s Medical School’s ‘Guest Artist’ Is Helping to Teach Doctors about Disease.” Huffington Post. May 20. http:// www .huffingtonpost .com /2015 /05 /20 /ted - meyer - geffen - medical - school _n _7325072 .html. French, R. 2003. Medicine before Science: The Rational and Learned Doctor from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Frost, S. 2011. “The Implications of the New Materialisms for Feminist Epistemology.” In Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy

Reich was not simply a moral aberration and poor science, but developed out of a certain medical logic. Thus, the Nazi program of killing was envisaged as a necessary means of “healing” the body politic, and as such may be considered a consequence of an Enlightenment ideal of rationality. See Gerhaard Baader, “Heilen und Ver- nichten: Die Mentalitat der NS-Arzte,” in Vernichten und Heilen, ed. Angelika Ebbinghaus and Klaud Dorner (Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 2001), 275–95. 11. Paul Komesaroff, “Medicine and the Ethical Conditions of Modernity,” in Ethical Inter