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, who graciously read and com- mented on the entire manuscript. Kingsley is a scholar’s scholar, with a wide grasp of the literature in evolutionary psychology and its intellec- tual history. His perceptive comments were invaluable. Finally, we are grateful to the University of Chicago Press. It has a reputation as one of the great university presses, and our experience confi rms this. Our editors were fl exible and supportive of creativity and scholarly independence, while also maintaining an ethos of quality, in- tellectual rigor, and interdisciplinary

capitalism) it reduces the adverse impact of such behaviors and increases this behavior in the future. In effect, rein- forcements work to control employee’s creative behavior by decreasing the unpleasant sensations associated with the cognitive effort needed to perform creativity. Empirically, an abundance of studies in the past thirty years have been conducted to understand if and under what conditions rewards enhance or inhibit creative behavior, with contradictory results and conclusions. Recog- nizing the confl icting evidence, fi ve meta- analyses aimed to

- ization to the project. Innovation and creativity All- edge adhocracies, then, are well positioned to deliver on their key promises of innovation and creativity. That’s because t h e w o r k o f a l l - e d g e a d h o c r a c i e s 173 the specialists working in an all- edge adhocracy represent self- programmable labor: they set their own tasks, determine and own their own processes, apply their own creativity, and adjust and evolve nimbly to address new circum- stances and unique problems (see Castells 1996, 1998, 2003, 2009; Castells & Cardoso 2006). When

Weber, Corinne Weber, David Weber, Donald Weber, Lauren Weber, Christine Williams, Merrill Zack, and Elise Zelechowski. The book was a family affair— my journalist sister commiserated; my fa- ther and mother copyedited; and my brother provided the soundtrack for late- night writing sprees. My children wore me out and replenished me. My stature in their eyes dropped a few degrees when I let them know there would be no movie or made- for- TV anything based on this book. The primary in- spiration for this project was my husband, John Slocum, whose creativity is


through the issues together. I simply want to mark the joy of this trajectory, and also the impact of his fi erce and un- wavering faith in me, and in the wider endeavor. He is never fooled, and his criticism can be devastating but it is always spot on. Watching him at the craft of ethnographic research—engaging others with dog-headed te- nacity and the passionate joy of the hunt, but with true tenderness and empathy for others, and creativity in response—renews my faith in the discipline daily and has taught me so much about friendship besides. Although in all

creativity liberated from the conservative rule or law or routine. Again the historical evidence reinforces the economic logic. Prudent, temperate saving happens in every society, by necessity. In medieval Europe the yields in barley or wheat per unit of seed were pathetically low, four or fi ve. It required adults to ignore the weep- ing of their hungry children in the spring, and to engage in saving on a very big scale, by broadcasting on plowed ground upwards of a quarter of the grain crop. Th e problem in the Middle Ages was the absence of new ideas for

- proval of commercially tested bett erment. Th e bett er ethical system is that of liberal innovism. It turns proper att ention to new, mass creativity and the new, mass liberty to devise or relocate, starting in northwestern Europe and now rapidly enriching the world. Liberal innovism should not be silently assumed without evidence to be corrupting. Stop to consider. Th e Bourgeois Deal, and the Great Enrichment it made possible, And True Liberalism Celebrates a Life Beyond Wealth * 79 came under revolutionary scrutiny in 1848, initiating a slow turn to

enterprise surplus? How will co- determination, particularly over employment security issues, affect the social surplus and the firm's returns? There are four issues involved in co- determination. They are: the overlap of each party's information set, the rele- vance of nonoverlapping information, the delay caused by consultation, and the creativity that occurs during discussion. We model all four but deal least well with the last. 2.4.1 Council-Facilitated Consultation Consultation can increase enterprise surplus when workers offer solutions to firm problems that

decentralized market- orientation and offered opportunities for a broad spectrum of the population to benefi t from their technological creativity. Sokoloff’s pioneering 1988 paper showed that improvements in market access led to a greater proportionate response among rural residents who were new to invention. Further evidence on the identities of nineteenth- century patentees suggested that the specifi c design of the patent system played a substantial role in inducing relatively ordinary individuals to reori- ent their efforts toward exploiting market opportunities

; actors of, 87– 89, 103; contra- dictions of, 107– 11; object of, 77– 87, 100 – 101; outcome of, 89– 97, 102 Craigslist, 48, 69, 71, 194 creativity, 3, 29, 35, 68 – 69, 158, 160, 163, 172– 74, 180, 185 cross- functional teams, 23– 25, 32, 34, 45, 50 customization, 20, 115, 122– 25, 134 diffusion. See information: diffusion of diffusion effect, 167 distributed work, 30, 172, 176 – 77, 182, 186 division of labor, 34, 190; in activity systems, 100, 104; in all- edge adhocracies, 34; in clans, 153; in hierarchies, 22– 23, 146 – 47; in institutional adhocracies, 23