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284 CHAPTER SEVEN ART ON THE LINE cartography anD creativity in a DiviDeD worlD Sumathi Ramaswamy We have lived within the lines we have traced, and been made the subjects we have become.1 Is there an inescapable hegemony of the cartographic line ushered in by the modern science of mapping? This is the question that provokes my reflections here on one specific cartographic line that was legislated into existence with the formal end of British rule on the South Asian subcontinent on August 15, 1947. While the drawing of the so- called Radcliffe Line


Mapping the Gold Coast, 1874–1957 JaMie Mcgowan · 205 vi · contents CHAPTER SIX Multiscalar Nations: Cartography and Countercartography of the Egyptian Nation- State karen culcasi · 252 CHAPTER SEVEN Art on the Line: Cartography and Creativity in a Divided World suMathi raMaswaMy · 284 CHAPTER EIGHT Signs of the Times: Commercial Road Mapping and National Identity in South Africa thoMas J. bassett · 339 Contributors · 377 Index · 379


map experiments into the cinematic realm, providing insights that further informed this book. These “SLABbers” recognized and helped enunciate the value of what we were doing before I did, that our kind of humanistic vi- sualization was absent in the digital world, and they contributed countless hours, humor, and creativity to see it realized. I also thank them for cocreating the culture of our way of working. Other students also made valuable contribu- tions to the development of the book manuscript for which I am grateful. Julia Tierney and Jody Pollock

Fellowship that funded me through twelve months of archival research in France, and for a Robert Leylan Fellowship for fi nancing a year of writing after I returned from abroad. I would also like to thank the Yale Council for International and Area Studies (now the 198 Acknowledgments MacMillan Center) for supporting two summers of research in Europe, as well as the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation for providing me with a Mellon Fellowship to attend graduate school. At Montana State, a Scholarship and Creativity Grant provided vital travel and writing

possibilities for aesthetic creativity. I work with cyberartists Pat Lichty and Jon Epstein to develop illustrations for my books and web sites, and I have become excited concerning the aesthetic potential of new media. In addition, museum and other web sites make accessible to the entire world the heritage of world art that might not otherwise be accessible to many individuals. To be sure, such electronic reproduction of art, like slides and print reproduction, lacks the aura of the presence of the art work, but it furnishes supplementary experience and textual information

of the Air There is a linguistic challenge to understanding this effort to reimagine broadcasting. We lack a word for those who create aural performances. The writers who saw such promise in radio were not simply writers, poets, or dramatists in a straightforward sense. They set out to craft a new form of artistic expression, one that required a new kind of creativity, as film direc- tors and playwrights differ from novelists. The radio play—as opposed to a play on the radio—demanded its creator write not simply in words, but in sounds as well. These radio

institution. The concept of the “truly national laboratory” (TNL)—that a national physics facility should be governed by a democratic user policy—had been proposed in 1963 by Columbia University experimen- tal physicist Leon M. Lederman. It was to signify that the new laboratory would adhere to TNL principles that Wilson named it the National Ac- celerator Laboratory (NAL). Slashing costs in every way, while using frontier rhetoric to encour- age creativity and motivate his staff, Wilson argued that any technology that worked the first time was overdesigned and thus

public interest or responses to public controversy over some entertainer’s purported challenge to prevailing moral or social values. The content of the electronic mass media stretches across hundreds of stations and outlets— including Internet-based communication—and exhibits both astonishing di- versity and occasional bursts of breathtaking creativity. The system emerged gradually after the business shakeup that began in 1926, with many of today’s organizations and corporate relationships es- tablished during the subsequent period of expansion. The National Broad

of mass culture menaced unique thought, creativity, and personal identity. As that mass culture, and the social changes it represented, intruded into everyday lives these critics worried it would melt individual excellence and distinction into a common sludge. If the only standards that counted were those of the populace as a whole, such thinkers wondered, were individuals no longer relevant? If so, what did democracy mean? Others assailed radio from a more radical position, focusing on the impact a mass-produced culture had on social power in America

-62, 125; his critique of Homeric orality, 59-60; and language as a conven- tional system, 63-64; and literacy vs. community, 52; and his misgivings about writing, 47-49; on reading and context, 88; and writing as mate- rial, 53-54. playing. See music performance polyhedra, regular: as the Platonic build- ing blocks of reality, 61-62 possibility space: constructed by reading, 85,92,93; and creativity, 138-39 postmodern divide, 202 postmodern lightness of reality, 220 presence: and eloquence, 29; and refer- ence, 1, 17-18; imperilled by trans- parency