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P R O L O G U E Birth of a Free Spirit Grinning from behind my first period is the face of Jesuitism: I mean the con- scious holding on to illusion and the forcible incorporation of that illusion as the basis of culture. —Nietzsche, Note from the fall of 1883 (KSA 10:16 [23]) In August 1876, ill and disillusioned with the events surrounding the first Bayreuth Festival, Friedrich Nietzsche fled to the resort of Klingenbrunn in the Bohemian Forest and began to write the notes that eventually formed the first part of Human, All too Human. This book would mark

F O U R The Later Works: Beyond the Free Spirit In the summer of 1882, while making the final corrections to The Gay Sci- ence, Nietzsche indicated in letters to his friends that a crucial period in his philosophical career was coming to an end. To Lou Salomé he wrote at the end of June: “With this book that series of writings that began with Hu- man, All too Human comes to a conclusion: in all of them taken together, ‘a new image and ideal of the free spirit’ has been erected. That this is not the ‘free man in fact’ you will have long guessed” (SB 6

Genesis of the Philosophy of the Free Spirit
How to Approach His Thought
The New Attacks on Free Thought, Expanded Edition
The Free-Spirit Trilogy of the Middle Period

C O N T E N T S Preface / ix List of Abbreviations / xvii P R O L O G U E / Birth of a Free Spirit / 1 O N E / Human, All too Human and the Problem of Culture / 13 T W O / Daybreak and the Campaign against Morality / 57 T H R E E / The Gay Science and the Incorporation of Knowledge / 101 F O U R / The Later Works: Beyond the Free Spirit / 161 E P I L O G U E / 225 Notes / 229 Index / 257

E P I L O G U E This study began with Nietzsche’s flight from Bayreuth, Wagner, and ro- manticism in general in 1876. In the book he began to write shortly there- after, Human, All too Human, he constructed his new ideal of the free spirit, a figure who, animated by reason and the scientific spirit, rejects the com- forting illusions of metaphysics, religion, and morality and lives “among men without praising, blaming, contending, gazing contentedly, as though at a spectacle, upon many things for which one formerly felt only fear” (HH 34). Though in the books


Nietzsche’s Enlightenment Nietzsche’s Enlightenment The Free-Spirit Trilogy of the Middle Period P A U L F R A N C O The University of Chicago Press Chicago and London Paul Franco is professor of government at Bowdoin College and the author of Michael Oakeshott: An Introduction, Hegel’s Philosophy of Freedom, and The Political Philosophy of Michael Oakeshott. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London © 2011 by Paul Franco All rights reserved. Published 2011. Printed in the United States of America 20 19 18 17

signifi cant example: what Salome’s scheme refers to as Nietz sche’s “middle period” corresponds to a series of writings that he himself identifi ed as belonging together, as part of a series de- voted to establishing the ideal of the “Free Spirit.” To this extent, Nietz sche’s self- assessments support Salome’s scheme. But there is a major diffi culty here, because Nietz sche also characterized his last two “Free Spirit” writings as “yes- saying” works, together with Thus Spoke Zarathustra. So Salome’s “periodization” imposes a clear division where Nietz sche