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S I X Persuasion and Power In the previous chapter I revealed the gendered constraints that female sha- mans experience in their quest for power. Although shamanism was femi- nized while it was suppressed under socialism, with the advent of democ- ratization and a market economy the trend has been mostly reversed: male shamans have taken center stage, while female shamans have been margin- alized. In this chapter I explore some of the strategies that shamans use in order to obtain their power and persuade their audiences of their shamanic skills. “Power” and

C h a p t e r 4 The Power of Persuasion He who persuades always ends up asking. A l a i n B a d i o u , Plato’s “Republic” The opening scene of the Republic depicts Socrates and Glaucon stopped in their tracks by a group of young men as they are leaving the Piraeus to return to Athens. The group includes Adeimantus, Glaucon’s brother, and Pole- marchus, who initiates the following exchange (327c– 328b):1 “It looks to me, Socrates, as if you two are starting off for Athens.” Socrates replies, “It looks the way it is, then.” 1. Polemarchus: “Do you see how

As Socrates explains, the need to protect those potential judges from an early exposure to wrongdo- ing arises because such an exposure has the unfortunate consequence of giving a person a false sense of the natural appeal of doing wrong. Such an c h a p t e r f o u r Confronting Obstacles to Persuasion 66 chapter four interpretation of human motivation leads one to believe that justice is, at best, an external constraint forced on people to curtail a natural desire. In ef- fect, a too- early and critically unexamined exposure to wrongdoing provides the basis

24 Book 1 of the Republic is organized to bring out the difficulties that beset persuasion. This is evident in Plato’s choice of Socrates’s three main interlocutors: Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus. Ruby Blondell has pointed out that these three characters embody the three primary types of interlocutors whom Socrates normally encounters. These interlocutors are “marked by conventional wisdom, youthful enthusiasm and profes- sional expertise” (165), with Cephalus representing conventional wisdom, Polemarchus youthful enthusiasm, and Thrasymachus

’s incredulity with what Socrates said or implied. Innovation be- c h a p t e r f i v e The Limits of Persuasion: The Residual Force of Culture and the Unruliness of Desire the limits of persuasion: 89 gets resistance. The sources of this resistance are various: some of the resis- tance to his argument arises from Socrates’s rejection of the deference given to aristocratic values and ideas and some from his transgression of demo- cratic commonplaces.3 At issue is not so much the correctness or validity of anything that Socrates has proposed but its persuasiveness. There

7 chaPter one Praise, Blame, and Persuasion “Of Musicke by Way of Disputation” In 1589, London printer Thomas East published six separate parts in broad- sheet of a song titled “A gratification unto Master John Case, for his learned booke, lately made in the praise of Musicke” (fig. 1.1, bassus part). The poet Thomas Watson, the leading English translator of Italian madrigal verse, pro- vided the text. William Byrd, joint holder of the patent under which the piece was printed at a time of tremendous activity in the English music trade, con- tributed the music

8 Narrative Figures and Subtle Persuasions: The Rhetoric of the MOVE Report Susan Wells The more significant the object, the more detached the reflexion must be. Benjamin Rhetoricians of inquiry have two ambitious items on their agenda: pro- ducing concrete analyses of specific discursive forms, and defining a com- mon method for carrying out such analyses (see the essays by Sanders and Gross in this volume). Both are normal projects in the formation of a discipline, especially one embedded in the academic professions; they are analogous to the

73 Suger, Abbot of S- Denis, and the Rhetoric of Persuasion Manipulating Reality and Producing Meaning Our three witnesses have led us back in time over the formative century of Gothic, from the 1230s to the 1130s. Although we know very little about the identity of our first witness, Villard de Honnecourt, other that what can be surmised from the study of his little book of images, he has taught us much about the role of the interlocutor in the age of the creation of Gothic. Infor- mation about the life of our second witness, Gervase of Canterbury— choir

73 t h r e e From Mass Persuasion to Engineered Consent: The Impact of “European” Psychology on the Cognitive Turn in Marketing Thought In 1935, at a time when both state and business institu- tions were challenged by crises, the Austrian American public relations specialist Edward Bernays diagnosed a dire need for more sophisticated interaction with the public.1 To influence audiences effectively, public relations had to gain a better understanding of “the public,” which, he argued, should be seen not as a unified mass but rather as divided by

Democracy and the Philosophical Problem of Persuasion