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[ chap ter three ]Proust and the Effects of Analogy According to that great monument of Enlightenment learning the En- cyclopédie, to define something is to say what an object is in terms of its essence, quid est. Description, by contrast, is a “an imperfect and inexact definition.” It enumerates only the accidental attributes particular to the object, “sufficient to give an idea and to distinguish it from others, but which do not develop its nature and its essence.” Thus, while grammar- ians content themselves with descriptions, philosophers are after

chapter six Evolutionary Psychology and Its Analogies Thus far we have explored the impact of Darwinian analogies in poli-tics, paleontology and geology, and, albeit briefly, the social sciences. Darwinism’s reach in the social sciences went much deeper than the dis- cussion of the preceding chapters might suggest, in large measure because of the emergence in late nineteenth-century Argentina of the influential schools of evolutionary psychology to which we now turn. These schools did not appear ex nihilo with the advent of Darwinism. Instead, Darwin- ian

part i i i Rationality, Analogy, and Law a c r o s s t h e g r e a t d i v i d e In works from as long ago as Frankfort and colleagues’ Intellectual Adven- ture of Ancient Man (first edition, 1946), or as recently as Robert Bellah’s monumental Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age (2011), Mesopotamian culture has not survived comparative analyses of rationality. For both accounts rationality is the marker of an evolutionary success story rather than being one element in the sometimes contradic- tory aspects of any culture

77 c h a P t e r t h r e e Transparent Music and Sound- Light Analogy ca. 1800 ellen locKhart SCRUTON- IZED OR CORDER- ED? Musicology has a program- music problem—a paradox, really. On one hand, we are invested in musical signification, in discovering what and how music means. On the other, we find overt or articulated musical ref- erences to outside objects, such as word painting, embarrassing; and we often assign a lower status to genres that determine their own interpretation. Take, for instance, the article “Programme Music” in the New Grove Dictionary

4 By Way of Analogy: The Expansion of the Federal Government in the 1930s Hugh Rockoff 4.1 Ideological Change and the Growth of the Federal Bureaucracy The major turning point in the growth of the federal government was, of course, the New Deal. A host of programs were added that in themselves ac- count for a substantial share of the growth of government in the twentieth cen- tury, and the propensity to add new programs increased. The New Deal was the result of a unique concatenation of forces: the unprecedented magnitude of the contraction, the

Reason or Rationalization
Literary Atmosphere in British Fiction, 1660-1794
Rereading Plato's "Republic"
Presidential Nominations Before and After Reform