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T w o Politics, Citizenship, and Association “The moment a man is attached to a club, his mind is not free,” said the Reverend David osgood in a fiery 1794 speech denouncing some of the first politically active voluntary associations of the post- Revolutionary era. He was not alone in these sentiments. In the first two decades after the conclu- sion of the American war for Independence, there was a powerful commit- ment shared by many, across the political spectrum, to the principle that no male citizen’s autonomy as a political actor should ever be

Accompanying section 501(c)(3) have been suggestions that associations do not have the same First Amendment rights as individuals. Put crudely, it is said that “corporations are not persons.” More subtly, the hint is that some associations, including section 501(c)(3) organizations, have diminished First Amendment rights because they are not individuals. The argument is a sort of confession and avoidance, admitting the sup- pression but justifying it with a claim that the First Amendment does not fully protect the suppressed organizations. Underlying this

1 Principles of Association and Combination Private associations of men for the purposes of promoting arts, sci- ences, benevolence or charity are very laudable, and have been found beneficial in all countries. But whenever such societies attempt to convert the private attachment of their members into an instrument of political warfare, they are, in all cases, hostile to government. They are useful in pulling down bad governments; but they are dangerous to good government, and necessarily destroy liberty and equality of rights in a free country. Noah

3 Observing Interactions and Associations:Collecting Data 3.1 Types of Behavior Having decided what we wish to study and why (Chap- ter 1), the next step in analyzing social structure, and the subject of this chapter, is the collection of data. The real- life behavior of individual animals needs to be abstracted into a form, usually a numerical form, in which it can be analyzed. So, how should behavior be described? This subject is considered in detail by several authors, for in- stance, Lehner (1998, pp. 109–124) and Martin and Bate- son (2007, pp. 48–61), and

C h a p t e r 3 From Feudalism to Association Like other social scientists of his era, English theorist Graham Wallas tried to update his own fi eld of political science by integrating the fi ndings of evolu- tionary psychology into it. In May 1915 after hearing Addams speak in Lon- don, Wallas included in his thank- you note, “I have learnt more from you (e.g., how to be psychological without being cynical) than from any other writer.”1 Wallas was right to appreciate Addams’s acumen at psychological analysis. In the three essays examined in this chapter, “A

appendix a Methodology: How Associations Mobilize In this appendix, I detail the formal statistical models that demonstratethe points in chapter 2. The principal data source for chapter 2 is the 1990 American Citizen Participation Study (Verba et al. 1995). In addi- tion, I use the combined 1972–98 General Social Survey (Davis and Smith 1998) to supplement the analysis. The ACPS is based on 2,517 lengthy in- person interviews done in the spring of 1990. It contains detailed informa- tion on respondents’ civic and political participation, including questions about

2 The New York Clearing House Association A clearinghouse is an important part of the plumbing infrastructure of the fi nancial system that is jointly owned by its member banks. One specifi c clearinghouse— the New York Clearing House Association— will be the cen- tral player in what follows. The Supreme Court of the State of Pennsylvania defi ned a clearinghouse as follows: It is an . . . ingenious device to simplify and facilitate the work of the banks in reaching an adjustment and payment of the daily balances due to and from each other at one time and in

C H A P T E R S I X Ideas, Associations, and Properties The study of plants is a human endeavour and, as such, the names given to plants are subject to the influence of human constructs, ideas, and values. Names that refer to such concepts make plants relevant to culture as well as nature, and much of interest to gardeners can be learnt from them, from flowering season to physical appearance to properties of practical use. Perhaps most treasured are those names that recognize traditional associations connecting us to our past. 124 A P O R T A B L E L

but mutually reinforcing purposes.1 Recent constitutional decisions have obscured these connections. They have collapsed the right to form groups under the assembly clause down to the right to speak under the free speech clause. One mis- step contributing to this collapse is the judicially rec- ognized right of association. Look again at the text of the First Amendment—you will not find a right of as- sociation there, and you will not find it anywhere else in the text of the Constitution. Another misstep came with the Court’s conclusion that sometimes the

or status. Everyone wants to rise, and just a little higher than his neighbor. “No matter what general effort a society expends to make citizens equal and alike, pride will always impel individuals to escape the common level and somewhere establish an inequality that is to their own advantage.”1 chapter 14 Tocqueville: The Corporation as an Ethical Association Alan S. Kahan 284 Alan S. Kahan The widespread desire for material well- being, coupled with widespread ambi- tion, lead to the universal pursuit of wealth. Commerce is thus a natural pursuit for people