through a striking evocation of capitalism and empire.
The buildings were of a style that was dubbed “bull market architecture”3—
an architecture engineered through the calculation of ground rent and the
maximization of profit— but their Bessemer steel frames were also encrusted
and bejeweled with the ornamental excesses, the opulent waste, and the ex-
travagant ostentation of the 1920s. The towers contained columns and tiles
of limestone, marble, and granite drawn from southern quarries, paneling
and cabinetry of mahogany and teak harvested from the West Indies