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PA R T T H R E E Politics and Collective Intelligence S E V E N Decision- Making Pathologies Deliberative decision making takes place when an organization or an in- dividual reaches a decision about the allocation of scarce resources. For example, every morning we wake up and decide how we will allocate our time that day. If it is a weekday, often the decision is an easy one: like it or not, we will be going to work. But weekends can be more complicated, especially if we consider the input of signifi cant others and children. Some- times we make decisions

social computing needs “ex- pert members” and “harbingers” (the latter a kind of expert frontier scout). Mediated by the “tireless work of the machines,” the “hard work of the few” can thus guide the “light work of the many.” How does modular writing fit in with such a vision of expert judgment? In short, it doesn’t. Or, at least, the fit is far from clean. Given the controversy attending such Web 2.0 “collective intelligence” sites as Digg (Stefik’s example) or Wikipedia (with its vandalism, revert wars, delete wars, etc.), modular writing is surely one of the

. “Democratic reason: The Mechanism of Collective intelligence in politics.” in Collective Wisdom: Principles and Mechanisms, edited by hélène landemore and Jon Elster. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2012. ———. Democratic Reason: Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many. princeton, NJ: princeton University press, 2013. lanier, Mark, and Cloud Miller iii. “The allen Charge: Expedient Justice or Coercion?” American Journal of Criminal Justice 25, no. 1 (2000): 31– 40. lee, Cynthia. “Making race Salient: Trayvon Martin and implicit Bias in a Not

Politically Feasible?,” Buffalo Criminal Law Review 5, no. 2 (2002). For an argument about the proliferation of other forms of 120 / Notes to Pages 10–13 adjudication and their potential desirability over juries, see Judith reznik, “Migrat- ing, Morphing, and Vanishing: the empirical and Normative Puzzles of declining trial rates in court,” Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 1, no. 3 (November 2004). 47. James surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds (New York: Anchor, 2005). Hélène Lande- more, “democratic reason: the Mechanism of collective Intelligence in Politics,” in

’s expansion of accessible information would lead to greater “collective intelligence” is being supplanted by fear of “a sort of ‘collective credulity.’”39 This serendipitous fit between the characteristics of conspiracism and technological advancement is not quite the entire story. Online practices such as trolling and astroturfing compound the difficulty of DEMOCRACY AND CIVIL SOCIETY · 327 achieving collective intelligence. Hoaxes, parodies, and satires, often posing as “alternative news sources,” routinely fool conspiracists, who repost them or work them into the

, 240 Clark, Andy, 199 Clifford, W. K., 189 Cloudmakers, 204–5, 210 Cog, 26, 202, 335–36 cognition, 237–39; in artificial intelligence, 328; brain logic, 239–42; insight, 22–23, 239, 240–55; perception, 243; whole- ness of, 246–50, 251, 254–55. See also intellect, human Cog Shop, 334–36 Coimbrans, 86–87 Colenuccio, Pandolfo, 48 collective intelligence, 204–9 computational architecture of conversation, 359–68, 359f, 361f Computer and the Brain, The (von Neumann), 254 computer games, 204–7 computer simulation, 27; in biology, 341–42; and nature, 25–26, 324– 29

frameworks of individualism and con- sumption frequently overshadow the profound implications that networks suggest for ontology and epistemology, politics and ethics. Networks may make individuals obsolete or irrelevant. They may tap into James Surow- iecki’s “wisdom of crowds” that comes from aggregated data about actions of discrete group members as well as Pierre Lévy’s “collective intelligence” that depends on exchanges within a shared community.19 Networks help us better understand, without ever wholly comprehending, the behavior of nonhuman superorganisms like

corruption, luxury, and self-interest—all of the vices that could under- mine a republic. As the nineteenth century progressed, however, the heirs of the Revolution, and especially these Protestant educators, placed more and more stock in the nation’s collective intelligence, as well as the unfet- tered operation of self-interest. Virtue still mattered, but the intelligence that came from a proper education, such as an education in political economy and other practical subjects, took more and more precedence as the nine- teenth century progressed. This knowledge of how the

democracy is deliberative and widely inclusive. Democ- racy’s “reason” is a form of collective intelligence. It is a systemic, emer- gent property that forms as a result of dispersed deliberative processes utilizing the polity’s full range of cognitive diversity. Democratic decision- making systems have greater knowledge- producing potential than elitist ones, claims Landemore, because (a) they allow citizens to develop their moral and intellectual capacities; and (b) their political structures tap into the whole range of perspectives, interpretations, and heuristics