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2 17 Communication Their speech is the only gateway to their minds, and through it we must pass if we would learn their secret thoughts and measure the distance from mind to mind. R I C H A R D G A R N E R , 1 8 9 2 : T H E S P E E C H O F M O N K E Y S When you barke, doe it with judgement. S C H O O L M A S T E R T O T H E B A B O O N , B AV I A N , I N W I L L I A M S H A K E S P E A R E A N D/O R J O H N F L E T C H E R , 1614 : T H E T W O N O B L E K I N S M E N In their responses to our playback experiments, baboons reveal their

6 Science Communication as Communication about Persons b r e n t r a n a l l i Science communication might seem one of the most impersonal genres of communication. Yet science communication is also, always, communication about persons. Even the most dry and abstract research paper projects the author’s self- image of competence, credibility, and authority. And in other genres, such as science journalism, the person of the scientist often takes cen- ter stage. This chapter explores the ethical dimension of communication about persons in science

1 The Communication Landscape Billboards, bars, and restaurants painted in the colors of mCel and Vodacom; people texting, talking on the phone, exchanging numbers; phones cradled in brassieres and bulging out of tank tops or dangling from a cord and worn like a necklace: mobile phones have suffused the urban landscape. The new business ventures that have emerged in response to the spread of mobile phones have also transformed the look and feel of the city. Small phone- repair shops selling phone accessories have cropped up everywhere. Young men sporting

- pede vocal communication—many New Zealand forests endure an impene- trable blast of chorused cicada calls through the daylight hours of midsum- mer, drowning out avian attempts to communicate. Parrots tend to find windows of acoustic opportunity, where their vocalizations can be heard through the myriad of environmental sounds. Close contact calls of parrots are generally more complex and diverse than distant ones, in part because they suffer less from such interference. What mainly slows the expansion of vocal repertoires in the wild is likely a kind of

importance to them? The above notes of Fred Harrington portray what might be a typical night for a lone wolf during the breed- ing season. They also demonstrate the difficulties inher- ent in the study of communication. The howling inter- actions easily fit our expectations for communication (i.e., Smith 1977). One individual (the sender) produces a specialized signal (howl) in a specific context (breeding season), which has immediate (howl reply) and delayed (approach) effects on others (receivers) that perceive the signal. It is obvious that communication occurred, but

139 s I X Intraspecific communication 6.1 Intraspecific signaling Because people can see zebras so easily at close range and can instantly recognize them as zebras, some biologists have proposed that stripes are concerned with recognition or with facilitating social behavior. There are several related but separate issues under this general hypothesis (reviewed in Ruxton 2002). The first concerns species recognition: here stripes might help zebras distinguish members of their own species from heterospecifics, perhaps from other ze- bra species in areas of