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Fertility, Time, and Aging in West Africa

journey unfolded as they did because of contingent events buried in the depths of time. Historians like to talk about contingency—the notion that key events in the past (turning points, if you like) determine the course of subsequent history. “Contingency is central to any historical process,” the historian David Hackett Fischer tells us. Consider the ill-fated charge of a Civil War gen- eral named Pickett. Viewed in isolation, Robert E. Lee’s decision to order the charge at Gettysburg seems nuts. Send men across a mile-wide open fi eld straight at the muzzles of

/Introduction Contingent Methods In the postindustrial West, the history of the new millennium has opened on a sense of loose beginnings and loose ends. Chasing the new or innovative in business, technology, media, art, fashion, and so on, we seem to ourselves to slip the bonds of the past and become, again, aboriginals. We are post- rather than prehistorical aborigines (ab + orı̄gine: “from the origin”) seek- ing a new beginning. Multibillion- dollar companies thus defend patents that legally eschew all “prior art.”1 Artistic and theoreti- cal movements

51 4 BUILDING THE CONTINGENT WORKFORCE Most undergraduates don’t realize that there is a shrinking percentage of positions in the humanities that offer job security, benefits, and a livable salary (though it is generally much lower than salaries in other fields re- quiring as many years of training). They don’t know that you probably will have to accept living almost anywhere, and that you must also go through a six- year probationary period at the end of which you may be fired for any number of reasons and find yourself exiled from the profession. They

chapter four How to Implement Contingent Capital Albert S. Kyle 1 Introduction How can an economically efficient set of policies be designed toprevent financial institutions from receiving costly bailouts in the future? The scenario that ends in bailouts is familiar: As a result of loom- ing loan losses, the financial condition of banks weakens. Banks delay raising capital and continue to pay dividends; the financial condition of the banking system weakens further. Government regulators do little to force banks to raise capital. Eventually, banks refuse to lend

investment incentives in certain cases, and addressing the problem of unsolicited proposals.2 Executive Order No. 215, issued in 1987, allowed the private sector to invest in power generation. The Electric Power Indus- 257 8 Dealing with Contingent Liabilities The Philippines Gilberto M. Llanto Gilberto M. Llanto is a senior research fellow at the Philippine Institute for Development Studies. 1. The amended BOT law allows for various modes of private participation: build-operate- transfer, build-run-and-operate, build-transfer, build-lease-and-transfer, contract

19 2 THE PERMANENT AND THE CONTINGENT Adjunct (n): something joined or added to another thing but not essen- tially a part of it. —Merriam- Webster Dictionary online Every institution has its hierarchy, the ranking system that distin- guishes enlisted from officer, duke from viscount, priest from bishop. College and university faculty—the body of scholars whose primary job is to design and create classroom instruction, academic research, and intellectual guidance for individual students—are no different. The fundamental distinction in faculty life, its two

c h a p t e r 9 Contingent Evolution: Not by Chance Alone Eric Desjardins Darwinian evolution is commonly characterized as a historical process. This characterization may seem obvious if we think of evolution as continuous and long- lasting, involving the modifi cation of life forms into diff erent life forms. But extended time, continuity, and change are not the only proper- ties that make evolution historical. Several biologists and philosophers have qualifi ed evolution as historical in virtue of its contingent nature. For some, like Stephen Jay Gould

C H A P T E R 6 Realizing a Reproductive Endowment in a Contingent Body 162 1. The fact that we view reproduction as hinging on the conception of a microscopic entity is clear from this definition of human fertility in the Encyclopaedia Britannica Online (, accessed 22 August 2000): “the ability . . . of a human couple to con- ceive and reproduce. Fertility refers to the ability to become pregnant through normal sex- ual activity, and infertility is defined as the failure to conceive after one year of regular inter- course without contraception

6 Contingent Claims Valuation of Corporate Liabilities: Theory and Empirical Tests E. Philip Jones, Scott P. Mason, and Eric Rosenfeld 6.1 Introduction A fundamental issue in the study of capital structure is how securities issued by firms are valued in the financial markets. Typical corporate capital structures contain many individual securities, which in themselves are complicated by numerous covenants and indenture provisions. In addition, the valuation of any individual security must consider complex interactions among different claims. The corporate