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13 S One DELIBER ATION: A VERY BRIEF HISTORY i . the idea of deliber ation Deliberation in a general sense refers to personal refl ections and conversations directed at producing well-informed decisions about a course of action. This understanding of deliberation draws on classical political theory, notably the works of Aristotle and Cicero, but it is general enough to include a broad range of prac- tices, including Kwame Anthony Appiah’s conversational ethic in Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (2006). There Ap- piah argued that as

112 F I V E The Nature of “Reasonable” Moral Deliberation The Problem of Rational Moral Judgment The simulative process of imaginative moral deliberation that I have just described in the previous chapter treats moral reasoning as more than intuitive, non-reflective ap- praisal. It defines the appropriate reflective dimension as simulation. However, since emotion will play a significant role in determining what counts as a simulation that best resolves the problematic situation in a particular context, it may not be clear that there is any rationality to

97 S Four THE POLITICS AND AESTHETICS OF DELIBER ATION i . the r ise of l iter ary or atory By the 1820s, as we have seen, deliberation held a prominent place in the republicanism of the United States. The emergence of the second party system toward the end of the decade transformed deliberative politics into a partisan stance, which was associated with the National Republicans, and later the Whigs, in opposition to the Jacksonian Democrats. For the fi rst time since the election of 1800 the United States had a strong two-party system and, after

and how scholars recognize it in particular countries. In this chap- ter I take up that invitation, shifting from the previous preoccupation with nationalism to consider an alternative dimension of political identifi cation. In doing so, I pick up on a proposition introduced in chapter 2, namely, that the very fragility of some authoritarian states may enhance opportuni- ties for widespread activism and critical, deliberative discussion. Using the example of qāt chew gatherings, I argue that the deliberation so evident in these meetings represents an important

89 F O U R Moral Deliberation as Cognition, Imagination, and Feeling The Third Process of Moral Cognition We have been examining the recently popular hypoth- esis that our moral reasoning runs its course in two related tracks or processes, one “intuitive” and the other “rational”. In other words, . . . intuition and conscious reasoning have different design specs. Intuitions are fast, automatic, involuntary, require little attention, ap- pear early in development, are delivered in the absence of principled reasons, and often appear immune to counter

82 F O U R Stories and Reasons: Why Deliberation Is Only Sometimes Democratic Stories are commonly viewed as persuading through their appeal to emotion rather than reason, through an affective identification that supersedes logic and evidence. If that is true, then does storytelling jeopardize fair and effective po- litical decision making? In one view, it does. Storytelling produces mobilization rather than deliberation, galvanizes the mob rather than guiding the citizenry. Concerns like these have become especially significant in the context of political

C h a p t e r 2 An Evolutionary Method of Ethical Deliberation Virtually every issue Addams confronted in her early years at Hull House was singed by industry’s brutal treatment of its workers. Her task in her 1895 essay “The Settlement as a Factor in the Labor Movement” was to ascertain what role the settlement should play in response to labor struggles. After a brief discussion of the circumstances that prompted Addams to write the essay, this chapter uses the musical image of theme and variations as discussed in the introduction to show how Addams

4 The Sources of Political Innovation Habit, Experience, and Deliberation By May 1931, Peruvian political actors were facing an unprecedented situation. A democratically oriented military junta had created a political opening that introduced a historically unique set of political rules and electoral realities; the political field had undergone dramatic transformations in a relatively short pe- riod of time; and profound changes in economic, infrastructural, and social conditions had produced novel challenges and opportunities for political ac- tion. But

T w o Mistaken for Consensus: Hung Juries, the Allen Charge, and the End of Jury Deliberation Each jury is a little Parliament. The jury sense is the parliamentary sense. I cannot see the one dying and the other surviving. The first object of any tyrant in whitehall would be to make the Parliament utterly subservient to his will; and the next to overthrow or diminish trial by jury, for no tyrant could afford to have a subject’s freedom in the hands of twelve of his countrymen. —Lord Devlin, Trial by Jury The declaration of a hung jury is one of the most

The Sciences of State at Their Height, 1815-1840: Deliberation THE “ E N T I R E SCIENCES O F STATE” A N D THEIR INSTITUTIONAL BACKGROUND The features of the period 1815-40 are familiar to most students of German history Economically, the post-Napoleonic years brought continued hard times, with the crop failures of 18 16- 1 7 followed by a collapse of prices due to renewed English competition. By the mid-1 820s, however, stability had re- turned. Politically, Napoleon’s territorial settlement held to a great degree in the form of the German