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i n t r o d u c t i o n The Unsentimental Eighteenth Century, 1740–70 Eighteenth-century Britons—or a high proportion of them—openly de- lighted in the miseries of others. Women as well as men laughed at cripples and hunchbacks. They tormented lunatics and led blind men into walls. Wife beating was a routine way of maintaining order within marriage—“an hon- est Englishman hates his wife” went the catchphrase. Types of violence that would now count as rape were almost mainstream sexual behaviors. Social hi- erarchies were part of God’s plan, and those less

86 C h a p t e r F o u r The Later Eighteenth Century: Conclusions So far, I have been looking at aspects of queer fashioning in the eigh-teenth century that involved engagement with and, in some cases, re- sistance to modes of satirical humor and visual caricature. I have been suggesting that modulating between sartorial exaggeration and self- aware burlesque of such extremes provided a space in which codes of queer self- expression could begin to be formulated. For such codes to operate effec- tively as signifi ers of same- sex desire, they needed to be

2 The Eighteenth-Century Anglo-American Constitution and Foreign Affairs This chapter begins the work of locating the Constitution’s textual alloca- tion of the foreign affairs power within the legal and political context of Anglo-American government in the eighteenth century. It sets the stage for a more complete discussion of the framing period by examining the treatment of the war and treaty powers in eighteenth-century political thought and in Anglo-American political practice. I then proceed to ex- plore the relationship between foreign affairs and

carefully cultivated image of restraint and security, how- ever, masks a past in which life insurance served as a vehicle for gaming. Though ostensibly devoted to risk avoidance, life insurance arose from and drew much of its initial popularity in eighteenth-century England from people’s taste for gambling on others’ lives. If the speculative roots of the life insurance business are now so obscure, that can be attributed to sustained governmental attempts (at both the private and public levels) from the late eighteenth century to impose a new mental schema out of which

The Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Background: Classification THE BACKGROUND O F CAMERALISM The nineteenth-century sciences of state represented an outgrowth of an earlier curriculum known as cameralism, which arose in the century following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. We may view it as an example of what Gerhard Oestreich has called “the establishment of social discipline”-a campaign to restrain the destructive passions unleashed in the previous century by religious fanaticism and civil war. Discipline was seen as an alternative to cruelty

11 The Crisis of English Gunpowder in the Eighteenth Century s ey mou r h . mau s kop f In September 1883 the director of artillery wrote a memorandum on what he perceived to be a crisis in British munitions. The important question of the supply of powder is in a very unsatisfactory state. Rejections frequently take place in consequence of powder not passing the regulation proof, and the makers protest against War Offi ce decisions, and urge that the results obtained in the proof guns are not trustworthy. The Superintendent Royal Gunpowder Factory is

6 The Anatomy of Artificial Life: An Eighteenth-Century Perspective J O A N B . L A N D E S After viewing a demonstration of Jacques Vaucanson’s flute-playing automaton, the Abbé Desfontaines enthusiastically exclaimed, “It is doubtless the growth of human anatomy, and above all the anatomy of the nervous sys- tem, which guided the author in his mechanics.”1 A celebrity in his own day, the French engineer has lately attracted an audience in Artificial Life circles. The (“defecating”) Duck, another of Vaucanson’s automata, has even become a kind of logo

9 Liqueurs and the Luxury Marketplace in Eighteenth-Century Paris e . c . s pa ry Well-to-do Parisians in the 1750s and 1760s could take their pick from a re- markable range of fashionable luxury products. Mustard, lemonade powder, rum, candy, cake, and game pie jostled with a host of other goods, from fab- rics, wigs, snuffboxes, natural history specimens, watches, medicaments, and fi reworks to perfumes, prints, and an oyster fork, specially designed, that ad- ministered a measured volume of pepper to the shellfi sh in the act of prizing it from its shell