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19 The Message of the Buddha: From the Terror of the Eternal Return to the Bliss of the Inexpressible 155. The man struck by a poisoned arrow . .. The Buddha never consented to give his teaching the structure of a system. Not only did he refuse to discuss philosophical prob- lems, he did not even issue pronouncements on several essential points of his doctrine-for example, on the state of the holy man in nirviilJ,a. This silence early made possible differing opinions and finally gave rise to various schools and sects. The oral trans- mission of the Buddha

Becoming Nietzsche
Genesis of the Philosophy of the Free Spirit

Introduction: The Paradox of Pointless Suffering 1 Part One Three Modern Ways of Looking at Pointless Suffering 19 1 We Should Eliminate Pointless Suffering: On John Stuart Mill and the Paradox of Utilitarianism 33 2 We Should Embrace Pointless Suffering: On Friedrich Nietzsche and the Challenge of the Eternal Return 55 3 We Must Take Responsibility for Pointless Suffering: On Hannah Arendt and the Banality of Evil 77 Interlude on the Problem of Evil 101 Part Two Four Perennial Ways of Looking at Pointless Suffering 113 4 Pointless Suffering Reveals God

event occurs that the whole book exists to prepare, Zarathustra’s embrace of eternal return. A few weeks after he completed his Forewords project, he assigned the title “The great health” to the penultimate section of the Book 5 he added to The Gay Science— so his Forewords project, a record of his becoming, had to end on “the gratitude of a convalescent” (GS Foreword 1). The convalescence of “Mr. Nietz sche” comes fi rst, but renewed health in a mere person could seem to matter only incidentally, so the Fore- word moves to what matters to everyone

creativity. All earlier philosophies are interpretations and were not aware of the fundamental significance of creativity. They did not present themselves as creations or accompaniments of creations. The capstone is the doctrine of eternal return, which means an infinite affirmation of life with all sufferings and defects. The doctrine of eternal return preserves the principles: there is no without. Any concern with the without is inimical to life. Or, we can also say, the doctrine of eternal return preserves the principle that there is nothing eternal or sempiternal

question compared to the question of society as a whole. What to do in such a situation— not the immediate social action, which might very well be useless— but regeneration of society? Now enlarge this problem, which has no parallel in any earlier crisis; then you understand why Nietzsche was so vague and indefinite regarding the practical problems. In our reading of the Zarathustra, we have now reached the center of Nietzsche’s teaching, and that is the teaching of eternal return. According to Nietzsche himself, this is the center. Everything depends on it. Why

nonetheless was wholly and will be wholly converted into life, if the living is thus both more and less than the whole that it is, and if this, then, must be said at the same time of the dead, is it not the case that this thought of life death cannot be subjected in any way to a univocal signification of totality, a univocal signification of the relationship whole/non- whole, and that, as a result, the thought of eternal return that, of course, traverses this statement is not a thought of totality? Now what will Heidegger put forward as one of the most certain, most