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In the middle of the nineteenth century, a monk growing peas in the garden of an Augustinian monastery in Central Europe worked out the first rules of inheritance and quietly founded the field of study that would become genetics. Gregor Mendel was the son of struggling Czech farmers so poor that Mendel’s younger sister donated her dowry so he could finish school. In college, he studied philosophy and physics, then joined the Augustinian friars so he could earn a living while continuing to study and teach science. Most of his publications were on

analogous,” and putatively “dangerously attractive” analogies of Burke’s radiobes, Gager’s central concept of a “radiotonus” emerged at the intersection of biological concerns with the world of Radium Genetics R A D I U M G E N E T I C S 155 the radioactive and drew on the same sorts of powerful associations between radium and life. And yet Gager associated radium not with life in general, but with the specifi c physiological and mitotic effects radium might induce, and especially its effects on heredity and the chro- mosomes. Such work opened up a new realm of

With a New Afterword

4 Molecular Behavioral Genetics J ust as quantitative behavioral genetics seeks to adapt the methods of clas-sical genetics to the study of human behavior, so molecular behavioral ge-netics seeks to adapt the methods of molecular genetics. Since the 1953 identifi cation of the structure of the DNA molecule, techniques enabling iden- tifi cation, isolation, and manipulation of genetic material have developed at an amazing pace, spurred on by the commercial and medical potential of genetic and genomic technology. Whereas quantitative behavioral genetics was

1 I n t r o d u c t I o n Blood, Paper, and Genetics In July 1939, British citizens responded for the first time to a nationwide appeal for blood. War was threatening and the Ministry of Health hoped that a nationwide transfusion ser- vice would help mitigate the bloody effects of aerial bom- bardment. Responding to street posters, advertisements placed in newspapers, and radio appeals, tens of thousands of peo- ple in London, Manchester, and Bristol traveled to local hospitals to have their earlobes or fingertips punctured with needles. At recruitment

2 Quantitative Behavioral Genetics C lassical (also known as quantitative) behavioral genetics links behavioral variation with genetic variation within a given population. One aim—for some the central aim—is to ascertain how much of that behavioral varia- tion is due to genetic variation and how much to environmental variation. En- vironment is understood as encompassing socioeconomic status (SES), which includes race, education, and income levels of parents; urban, rural, or suburban location of rearing; and other such factors. It also includes professed att

assumption that nondeleterious genetic changes accumulate in a predictable manner over time. If populations do not inter- breed for a suffi cient length of time, these genetic changes will be able to differentiate those populations. Molecular markers that are neutral are important because they can estimate time elapsed since populations were founded or isolated, or they can supply an indication of the length of time that noninter- breeding populations have been separated. Molecular genetics also allows us to select markers that are independent (not on the same

T w o Genetics, Morphology, and Difficult Diagnoses Atypical Morphology and Abnormal Heredity Prenatal diagnosis (PND) is strongly identified with genetics. while this statement is historically accurate, it is factually misleading. At first, PND was indeed a diagnosis of a well- defined hereditary pathology. PND detected fetuses with diseases transmitted in families, such as Tay- Sachs disease, Niemann- Pick disease, or maple syrup urine disease, and the presence of a genetic (but usually nonhereditary) anomaly, Down syndrome (trisomy 21).1 In the United

424 · unification Bentley Glass Maupertuis, Pioneer of Genetics and Evolution (1959) Bentley Glass M A U P E R T U I S A S E P I G E N E T I C I S T It is in his biological ideas that Maupertuis was most clearly gifted with prevision. Here he must be reckoned as fully a century or a century and a half before his time. His biological ideas may be considered under the three heads of the formation of the individual, the nature of heredity, and the evolution of species, although obviously these are so closely interre- lated that the division is largely artifi

C h a p t e r 2 Animal Behavior Genetics, the Past and the Future One of my fi rst interviews for this project was with Dr. Scott Clark, a collabo- rator of Dr. Smith’s who also worked on the genetics of alcoholism. It was an interview that almost didn’t happen. I had found Dr. Clark through an article he had coauthored with Dr. Smith, and Dr. Clark was within driving distance of my house so I e- mailed him for an interview and a tour of his lab. Dr. Clark did not respond to the fi rst several e- mails, but I was determined not to let my project idea fail