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H A BIT It's hard to break a habit. Everyone knows this, and everyone knows that this is because drugs invade the body, filter 176 through veins and arteries, jump synapses, simulate the flow of blood. So that in the end, or after no time at all, you're hooked. "But everyone, as it turns out, is wrong," says Maggie. We are driving fast, careening over the Bay Bridge, away from the bright lights of San Francisco; and we are high on disaster. It's been a day of spectacular deaths-we've watched the waters of the world engulf Briinnhilde and we've seen

More than a century ago, Thorstein Veblen— American economist, sociologist and social critic— warned that the United States had developed a bizarre and debilitating network of social habits and economic institutions. Ascendant financial practices benefited a limited group at the expense of the greater society; yet paradoxi- cally Americans deemed these practices necessary, even commend- able. Far from lambasting the financiers plundering the nation’s resources, we lauded them as the finest members of society. Their instincts, wisdom and savoir faire were

The best we can do is to confront our inherited . . . nature with our knowledge of it, and . . . inplant in ourselves a new habit, a new instinct, a second nature, so that our fi rst nature withers away. It is an attempt to give oneself, as it were a posteriori, a past in which one would like to originate in opposition to that in which one did originate. Friedrich Nietzsche1 Mediating instinct and habit in the above epigraph is knowl- edge, always a dubious term in Nietzsche’s vocabulary, the signifi cance and function of which will be crucial in the

six Health Habits Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy . . . Ben frankLin Health is one of those things that if you have it in abundance, you hardly notice it at all— if your health is good, it isn’t a particularly important part of your conscious life. If you have poor health, how- ever, and especially if you suffer serious impairment, it becomes a major factor in your daily life. It can dramatically alter your long- term plans and capabilities. Probably no one you know would choose to have bad health, so in a book about making choices, it

c h a p t e r f i v e . A Diversity of Food Habits One of the pivotal biological relationships is that between species and their food supplies, from which animals obtain their nutrients and the chemi- cal potential energy they need for growth, development, maintenance, and reproduction. Therefore, the “choice” of foods is likely to be a pivotal com- ponent of any species’ natural history and specifi cally of its energy expen- diture. As we saw in chapter 3, BMR in both mammals and birds correlates with food habits. A more subtle impact of food habits on BMR

17 Habit and Event: Rehearsing, Practising, Improvising The event . . . in its impassibility and its impenetrability has no present. It rather retreats and advances in two directions at once, being the perpetual object of a double question: What is going to happen? What has just happened? The agonizing aspect of the pure event is that it is always and at the same time something which has just happened and something about to happen; never something which is happening. Gilles Deleuze1 So, does this mean that there is no live event? That the inten- sity of the

 :       S Imperfect Democracy   , I argued that the United States was reconstituted between  and  during the civil rights movement. We have fresh aspi- rations and reformed institutions but, I contended, not yet new forms of citizenship. We cultivate habits neither for dealing with political loss nor for generating trust among strangers. This leads to two ques- tions. Where do our old bad habits come from? And what would a new trust-generating citizenship look like? I save the latter question for part III, and turn now

414 15 Measuring Household Spending and Payment Habits The Role of “Typical” and “Specific” Time Frames in Survey Questions Marco Angrisani, Arie Kapteyn, and Scott Schuh 15.1 Introduction The rapid transformation of the US payment system and the increasing availability of new payment instruments have greatly changed household spending habits and use of payment methods. Understanding these trends has important policy implications. First, an assessment of consumers’ pref- erences and financial literacy may help enact regulations, laws, and educa- tional

the structure and habits of birds (1244–1250) · 307 The primary kingdoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 74: 5088–5090. Wood, C. A., and F. M. Fyfe. 1943. Frederick II of Hohenstaufen: The art of falconry. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. The Structure and Habits of Birds (1244– 1250) Frederick II of Hohenstaufen O F T H E D I V I S I O N O F B I R D S I N T O WAT E R F O W L , L A N D B I R D S , A N D N E U T R A L B I R D S In this fi rst section of our work we shall discuss those aspects of bird life it is

4 The Sources of Political Innovation Habit, Experience, and Deliberation By May 1931, Peruvian political actors were facing an unprecedented situation. A democratically oriented military junta had created a political opening that introduced a historically unique set of political rules and electoral realities; the political field had undergone dramatic transformations in a relatively short pe- riod of time; and profound changes in economic, infrastructural, and social conditions had produced novel challenges and opportunities for political ac- tion. But